A Swan Song

Posted on March 23, 2012 by aqil.
Categories: Kumpulan tugas.

Name : Akhyat Himi
Nim : D05209053
Subject : Literary Apreciation
A Swan Song
Reading literary works is very interesting, many kinds of literary works such as; poem, novel, and short story. Probably reading short story is the easy and the simple one, because it is not time consuming, no need much interpretation, and certainly the simple story that told in the short story. One of the interesting short stories comes from Anton Chekhov’s fingers entitled; A Swan Song. It is a unique story which has an attractive plot and unusual characters. Here the as a writer, I want to analyze this short story perspective the characterization.
The characters of this short story are; the Vasili Svietlovidoff and Nikita Ivanitch. In the beginning of the story is started by the prologue which belongs to Svietlovidoff, in this part the prologue portraits that svietlovidoff is an old comedian who feels totally hopeless. He thinks like that because he spends his life in hedonism like becoming a drunk hard, and the evidence is when he said “I’m drunk! Ugh! The play to-night was for my benefit, it is disgusting to think how much beer and wine I have poured down my throat in honour of the occasion”. And in the following part he said “ …., and I feel as dark and cold inside as a cellar! Even if I don’t mind ruining my health, I ought at least to remember my age, old idiot that I am! Yes, my old age! It’s no use!” It shows that he is hopeless because of his acts along his life in the badness. He is actually aware that what he has done is bad and he intends to change and stop doing badness proven by “I must give up drinking; I’m an old man, I shan’t live much longer. At sixty-eight people go to church and prepare for death, but here I am-heavens! ….. I must go and change it at once”.
When Svietlovidoff is hopeless, Ivanitch comes, a prompter, an old man. When he feels that he is useless and none loves him, Ivanitch supports him by giving him much compliment and saying “Your audiences love you, master”. The more Svietlovidoff feels hopeless the more Ivanitch supports him, and at the end of this part, Svietlovidoff feels optimist which is proven when we read what he says “ Oh Good Lord! Now then, listen! Did you ever hear such tenderness, such music? Sh! Softly;” .
This short story is very good literary work which has interest things that can make the readers not stop reading and understanding. It has good characterization which has two characters they are; Svietlovidoff and Ivanitch. Svietlovidoff is an old comedian who is hopeless and Ivanitch who is a prompter that never stop to support Svietlovidoff in order make him aware that he should not be hopeless.

Study of Taboo Pheomenon In Jombang East Java

Posted on February 7, 2012 by aqil.
Categories: makalah2 kueren banget.

01 Jangan Menyerah
Study of Taboo Pheomenon
In Jombang East Java

Submitted for Fulfillment of Lecturing
”Sociolinguistics”

By:
Akhyat Hilmi (D05209053)

Dosen pembibing:
Rakhmawati, M.Pd

FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI SUNAN AMPEL
SURABAYA
2012

INTRODUCTION

Never forget to say thanks to my God, Allah SWT who has given me chance and merciful until I can finish to write this paper, entitled Study of Taboo Phenomenon in Jombang East Java. In this paper we talk about more abaout the existence of taboo in jombang.
This paper is made for submitted as fulfillment final project of Sociolinguistiscs lecturing. In the process of making this paper, I get much guidance, correction, and suggestion. So that I would like to say many thanks for:
• Ibu Nur Cholifah as my mom, and my guide.
• My friends who has given great opinion for this paper.
All of people in this world probably know well that nothing perfect in this world except Him. So that, the author admits that this paper is not perfect yet. I never stop asking the readers suggestion, correction, and critics for this paper which might be much better than ever. Hopefully this paper will be useful for the readers who want to enrich knowledge about sociolinguistics, especially taboo.

Surabaya, 09th January 2012

Akhyat Hilmi

LIST OF CONTENT

1. COVER………………… …………………………………………………… I
2. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………II
3. LIST OF CONTENT……………………………………………………………………..III
4. CONTENT
A. The Theory Of Taboo…………………………………………………… 1
B. The Taboo Phenomenon in Jombang ………………………………… 2
5. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………… 5
6. REFERENCE …………………………………………………………… 6

DISCUSSION
A. The Theory of Taboo
According to Oxford dictionary (2005; 439) taboo is something which is forbidden, because it’s against the religion or social custom .
According to Ulman, the meaning of taboo branches off into two opposite directions. On the other hand means to sacred, consecrated; but one other hands it means uncanny, dangerous, forbidden, and unclean.
While in another version which is more complete, according to Wardaugh on his book An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, taboo is the prohibition or avoidance in any society of behavior believed to be harmful to its members in that it would cause them anxiety, embarrassment, or shame. It is an extremely strong politeness constraint.
Consequently, so far as language is concerned, certain things are not to be said or certain objects can be referred to only in certain circumstances. Of course, there are always those who are prepared to break the taboos in an attempt to show their own freedom from such social constraints or to expose the taboos as irrational and unjustified, as in certain movements for ‘free speech.’
Tabooed subjects can vary widely: sex; death; excretion; bodily functions; religious matters; and politics. Tabooed objects that must be avoided or used carefully can include your mother-in-law, certain game animals, and use of your left hand (the origin of sinister).
English also has its taboos, and most people who speak English know what these are and observe the ‘rules.’ When someone breaks the rules, that rupture may arouse considerable comment, although not perhaps quite as much today as formerly. Standards and norms change .
From the definitions of taboo above, the author can conclude that taboo is words which state vulgarity, very rude thing in the reality and we tend to avoid them in the formal condition or when we are in the communities which forbid us to say that. But It is still necessary in some condition and it is part of language phenomenon.
While the reasons why taboos still used in the communication are: (1) Expressing pain, anger, annoyance, frustration. (2) Insulting someone directly or descriptively. (3) Invoking or wishing for supernatural assistance in harming someone. (4) Adding emphasis to statement whether it is positive or negative in content. (5) Using taboo words or referring in certain concepts in any way at all. (6) Issuing ritual guaranties of truthfulness. (7) Studies have indicated that those who swear regularly suffer less from stress (and less violence) than those who do not. (If I say motherfucker makes me feel better than if I say damn).

B. The Taboo Phenomenon in Jombang
Jombang is regency in east java which has variants of citizens; they have different background and knowledge about language. An interest thing to make paper about taboo phenomenon in jombang because jombang is kown by the regency which has many Islamic boarding school in the good side, but in the opposite, jombang is known an area which has some people who are neutralizers by doing mutilation. But here, we do not analyze about the criminalization but we would like analyze the taboo in Jombang.
As we have explained before that tabooed subjects can vary widely: sex; death; excretion; bodily functions; religious matters; and politics. And as the examples of taboo that we can find in jombang are;
- In the area of sex ; kelon, ngentu, nyambel (mean sleep with or make love), medo’an or ngencuk(doing sex with adventurer), ngulon (means going to west to do prostitution, because in the west side of jombang there is an area for prostitution), lonte (adventuress)
- In the area of bodily functions
1. Bol; it means bottom. It is usually said if there is someone wants to remind another dealing with sitting attitude, e.g. Ojo lungguh nang duwur pas emakmu lunggu nang nisor, nggarai bol mu metu (Don’t sit on the chair while your mother sits under, it can make your bottom sick)
2. Moto, (means eye).
3. Endas, rai mean head.
4. Cangkem, congor, and cocot mean mouth.
5. Lambe (it can be taboo if you call someone; to replace “you” you use lambemu).
6. Jelalatan (like to see something but with impolite way), pecicilan (bulging)
7. Merongos (busktoothed)
- In the area of death; matek, bonko (means dead), ngalor (actually the meaning of ngalor is going to north, but ngalor can be taboo if you mention someone who is die by calling ngalor, (it happens because commonly the grave is in the north side of the area where the citizens live)).
- In the area of sickness; grogo, gering, bangkak, (it is usually used for mentioning someone who is sick).
- In the area of eating custom; mbadok, njeglak, njeplak (means eat), e’mboh (means you wanna eat anymore), ngemplok (means that the process you put the food in the mouth) memel (eat the waste food), jeplaplok (someone who like eating more and more and never feel satisfied).
- In the area of religion; silo and gaplekan (sitting while do gambling), ngombe (drunk), nggladik (like to steal something, or we can say thieve),
- In the area of criminalization; ngotel, ngalong, ngepet (stealing), ngetengi (make a woman pregnant),

Actually taboo is not language only, but also the action and the actions that determined as taboo are;
- Step or walk on someone’s grave, it is taboo in jombang because the majority of jombang people are Moslem. In islam walking on someone’s grave is allowed but recommended to avoid.
- Sweeping after sunset or at night, it is believed that for those who do it will be far from the marriage partner.
- Cutting the nail at night, it is believed that for the agents who do it will get disaster.
- Sitting on the pillow, it is believed that for someone doing it will get sickness in the bottom.
- Playing knife, it believed if there is “wali” (angel for Moslems) pass, the knife will hurt the person who playing the knife
- Throwing eyetooth on the ground it is believed if throwing eyetooth on the ground the tooth will not grow, so as the suggestion throwing eyetooth should be on the roof.
- Eating outside the house, it is believed that the people who do it is very arrogant and impolite.
- Using straw mat as a blanket it is believed that the person who do it will get die sooner.

CONCLUSION
Taboo is an action whether it is orally or act which is forbidden to do in the certain area, or prohibited to do. Taboo is prohibited because it is against the religion, norm, and social custom. There are many definitions of taboo which come from some experts of linguists, anthropologists, and sociologists.
Taboo can be prohibited in certain area while in another area is not prohibited, so here the author only focus on taboo phenomenon in jombang. While the tabooed subjects can vary widely: sex (e.g. ngulon, nyambel), death (e.g. bongko, matek, ngalor); excretion (ngebrol, kebrojolan); bodily functions (e.g. endas, lambe, moto, rai); religious matters (silo, ngombe); and politics.
And the actions which is determined as the taboo are; step or walk on someone’s grave, sitting on the pillow, using straw mat as a blanket, etc.

REFERENCES

McCutcheon.Mark.1993. Swear Words, Taboo Words, Euphemisms. 29/10/11. http://www.authentic-
campaigner.com/forum/showthread.php?1097-Swear-Words-Taboo-Words-Euphemisms-by-Mark-McCutcheon
Molina,miquel.2011.Taboo and Euphemism. 29/10/11. http://www.polseguera.com/colaboracion/english/6en.htm
Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. 2005. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Language and Culture : The Whorfian Hypothesis, Taboo and Euphemism

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: makalah2 kueren banget.

Language and Culture : The Whorfian Hypothesis,
Taboo and Euphemism

Submitted for Fulfillment of Lecturing
”Sociolinguistics”

By:
1. Akhyat Hilmi (D05209053)
2. Hari Subagyo (D05209036)
3. M. Teguh Prasetiyo (D05209053)
4. M. Adzleiyannuha (D05208094)

Dosen pembibing:
Rakhmawati, M.Pd
FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI SUNAN AMPEL
SURABAYA
2011
LIST OF CONTENT

1. COVER………………… …………………………………………………… I
2. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………II
3. LIST OF CONTENT……………………………………………………………………..III
4. CONTENT
A. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE ……………………………… 1
B. THE WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS…………………………… 1
C. TABOO……………………………………………………….… 2
D. EUPHEMISM…………………………………………………. 3
E. The Examples Of Euphemisms For Avoiding A Taboo…….. 3
5. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………… 4
6. REFERENCE …………………………………………………………… 5

CONTENT

1. Language and Culture
The exact nature of the relationship between language and culture has fascinated, and continues to fascinate, people from a wide variety of backgrounds. That there should be some kind of relationship between the sounds, words, and syntax of a language and the ways in which speakers of that language experience the world and behave in it seems so obvious as to be a truism. It would appear that the only problem is deciding the nature of the relationship and finding suitable ways to demonstrate it.

2. The Whorfian Hypothesis
One long-standing claim concerning the relationship between language and culture is that the structure of a language determines the way in which speakers of that language view the world. There are some opinions state that the structure does not the world-view that has intrigued many anthropologist and linguists, they argued that there is a fairly extensive concerning it. The opposite claim would be that the culture of a people finds reflection in the language they employ. In this view, cultural requirements do not determine the structure of a language – the claim is never that strong – but they certainly influence how a language is used and perhaps determine why specific bits and pieces are the way they are. A third, ‘neutral,’ claim would be that there is little or no relationship between language and culture.
The claim that the structure of a language influences how its speakers view the world is most usually associated with the linguist Sapir and his student Whorf, a chemical engineer by training, a fire prevention engineer by vocation, and a linguist by avocation. However, it can be traced back to others, particularly to Humboldt in the nineteenth century. Today, the claim is usually referred to as the Linguistic relativity hypothesis, Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or the Whorfian hypothesis.
Sapir acknowledged the close relationship between language and culture, maintaining that they were inextricably related so that you could not understand or appreciate the one without knowledge of the other.
One of his great claims is he contrasted the linguistic structure of Hopi with the kinds of linguistic structure he associated with languages such as English, French, German, and so on, that is, familiar European languages. He saw these languages as sharing so many structural features that he named this whole group of languages Standard Average European (SAE). According to Whorf, Hopi and SAE differ widely in their structural characteristics.
The Whorfian hypothesis generally states that language is powerful; it can stimulate emotional responses and shape how people think about moral and usually important sense. Not only that, this hypothesis gives much influence to the following linguist and anthropologist, they do not argue about the language and where the language comes from even what the correlation between language and culture is. Because this hypothesis which emphasizes on the human cognition totally enables to solve those problems, it does not view language from the surface but from the sources of the problem.

3. Taboo
Taboo is the prohibition or avoidance in any society of behavior believed to be harmful to its members in that it would cause them anxiety, embarrassment, or shame. It is an extremely strong politeness constraint. Consequently, so far as language is concerned, certain things are not to be said or certain objects can be referred to only in certain circumstances. Of course, there are always those who are prepared to break the taboos in an attempt to show their own freedom from such social constraints or to expose the taboos as irrational and unjustified, as in certain movements for ‘free speech.’
Tabooed subjects can vary widely: sex; death; excretion; bodily functions; religious matters; and politics. Tabooed objects that must be avoided or used carefully can include your mother-in-law, certain game animals, and use of your left hand (the origin of sinister).
English also has its taboos, and most people who speak English know what these are and observe the ‘rules.’ When someone breaks the rules, that rupture may arouse considerable comment, although not perhaps quite as much today as formerly. Standards and norms change.

4. Euphemism
The late twentieth century may have seen a considerable change in regard to linguistic taboo – in the English-speaking world at least – as certain social constraints have loosened. However, that decline may have been more than matched by the marked increase in the use of euphemistic language, the ‘dressing up’ in language of certain areas in life to make them more presentable, more polite, and more palatable to public taste. Euphemistic words and expressions allow us to talk about unpleasant things and disguise or neutralize the unpleasantness, e.g., the subjects of sickness, death and dying, unemployment, and criminality. Euphemism is endemic in our society: the glorification of the commonplace and the elevation of the trivial. We are constantly renaming things and repackaging them to make them sound ‘better’.

5. Examples of Euphemisms for Avoiding a Taboo
Taboo: death; euphemism: passing away, passing on.
Taboo: sex; euphemism: sleep with, go to bed with, make love.
Taboo: prison; euphemism: correctional facility
Taboo: stupid; euphemism: low IQ
Taboo: ill; euphemism: under the weather
Taboo: wild woman; euphemism: adventuress
Taboo: kill; euphemism; neutralize
Taboo: hell; euphemism; blaze
Taboo: damn; euphemism; blame
Taboo: sex; euphemism; make love or sleep with
Taboo: death; euphemism; pass away, pass on

CONCLUSION
1) Language and Culture
The relationship between language and culture has fascinated, the variety of people with wide variety of backgrounds that there should be kinds of relationship between the sounds, words, and syntax of a language and the ways in which speakers of that language experience the world and behave in it seems so obvious as to be a truism. It would appear that the only problem is deciding the nature of the relationship and finding suitable ways to demonstrate it.

2) The Whorfian Hypothesis
In this part explain the solution of many different views of linguists, anthropologists about the structure of the language. It came from the Whorfian hypothesis, he acknowledges that the close relationship between language and culture, maintaining that they were inextricably related so that you could not understand or appreciate the one without knowledge of the other. Addition, the Whorfian hypothesis emphasizes on the humans’ cognition.

3) Euphemism
Euphemism comes from Greek eu (‘well’) and pheme (‘to speak’); comfortable way of referring to unpleasant topics, avoidance of a taboo by describing the situation as better than it is.

4) Taboo
Taboo is borrowing having been brought back from Polynesia by Captain Cook in 1777; concerned sacred areas of human experience in ancient times, refers to unspeakably vile words nowadays; occurs at every level of civilization and in all kinds of environment.

5) The Examples of Euphemism to avoid Taboo
Taboo: death; euphemism: passing away, passing on.
Taboo: sex; euphemism: sleep with, go to bed with, make love.

REFERENCES

Fearing. The sociolinguistics of society. Oxford. Blackwell. 1954

Hughes, Geoffrey. A History of English Words. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.

Katamba, Francis. English Words. London: Rutledge, 1994.

Oliver M. Traxel. 2005. Englishches Seminar. WWU Munster

Molina,miquel.2011.Taboo and Euphemism. 29/10/11. http://www.polseguera.com/colaboracion/english/6en.htm

McCutcheon.Mark.1993. Swear Words, Taboo Words, Euphemisms. 29/10/11. http://www.authentic-
campaigner.com/forum/showthread.php?1097-Swear-Words-Taboo-Words-Euphemisms-by-Mark-McCutcheon

Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Intercultural Differences Between Indonesia and United States on Wedding Tradition

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: makalah2 kueren banget.

Intercultural Differences Between Indonesia and United States
on Wedding Tradition

REPORT
Submitted for Fulfillment of Lecturing
”Cross Culture Understanding”

By:
1. Akhyat Hilmi ( D05209053)
2. Kurrotul Ainiyah (D05210016)
3. Nur Jannah (D35208005)
4. Hilyatus Sa’adah (D05209041)
5. Nurul Fadhilah (D05210031)

Lecturer:
Afida Safriyani

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMEN
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH
STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES SUNAN AMPEL
SURABAYA
2011
A. INTRODUCTION

Getting married is one of crucial things in the life that everyone wants to get. Here we want to know deeper the Indonesia and America‘s culture specially in wedding ceremony.
B. INDONESIAN WEDDING CEREMONIES AND CUSTOMS
Indonesia has many islands, ethnics, and custom because it has wide area which has many people with different background and culture. Wedding ceremony in Indonesia is very crucial moment. It is crucial because it needs more preparation for the wedding ceremony. Given the broad diversity of ethnic groups in Indonesia, it stands to reason that wedding customs will reflect this diversity. Each ethnic group has different wedding dress (batik, traditional textiles, kebaya) and different marriage ceremonies and customs. Within ethnic groups, those of different religious backgrounds will have different practices as well.

1) Preparation of Wedding Ceremony
• The Invitation
Wedding invitations in big cities like Jakarta and other urban centers can be very extravagant. The date on the outside of the envelope is very practical if you receive many wedding invitations. In rural areas, the invitation is done via visits from the family to neighbors and friends.
The sincere welcome extended to guests is noted on the invitation with wording such as “Merupakan suatu kehormatan & kebahagiaan bagi kami apabila Bapak/Ibu/Saudara/i berkenan hadir untuk memberikan doa restu kepada kedua mempelai” or “Tiada yang dapat kami ungkapkan selain ucapan terima kasih dari hati yang tulus atas kehairan serta pemberian do. a restu Bapak/Ibu/Saudara/i kepada putra-putri kami”. Both of these phrases mean that you do the family great honor by attending and extending blessings upon the bride and groom.
On the invitation will be noted the date, time and place for the Akad Nikah, which is the actual wedding ceremony, as well as the Resepsi Pernikahan, which is the wedding reception. Even though both ceremonies are noted on the invitation, the majority of people will only attend the reception.
If you would like to attend the wedding ceremony, as this is when most of the cultural ceremonies take place, be sure to ask the person who gave you the invitation if this would be okay. They will probably say yes, but it’s best to clear it first as usually a much smaller crowd or just close family members are expected to witness the actual exchange of marriage vows.
Javanese has unique wedding traditions especially the preparation of wedding ceremony, and the things that should be prepared before wedding ceremony, as follow;
• The Proposal
The parents of the man (would be bridegroom) should send an envoy or envoys to the parents of the woman (would be bride), proposing that their son is willing to marry their daughter. Nowadays, for practical reason, the parents of both sides could talk directly. The parents of the couple should approve the planned marriage. They should fix convenient and good days of wedding procedures which must be followed such as Peningsetan (traditional engagement), Siraman (holy bathing), Midodaremi (ceremony in the eve of the wedding day), the Panggih and other traditional rituals. Usually, the parents of the woman would be bride have a greater say as they are the ones who organize the ceremony. It should be decided also what kind of marriage pattern is chosen, among other Paes Ageng (great make up) or Kesatrian (knight’s make up which is simpler). Every marriage pattern differs in make up and dresses for the bride and bridegroom. It should be decided also what kind of dresses the parents should wear, what kind of Batik pattern and shirt/coat design, which color etc.

• The Pemaes and the wedding committee
A complete traditional Javanese wedding ceremony is involving several kinds of activities. One of the most important things is the ritual. In that case, service of a Pemaes is of top priority. There are a lot of Pemaes, but favorite Pemaes, they have also a tight schedule. It must be made sure the engagement of a Pemaes long time before the wedding. She should be entrusted to make up the bride and bridegroom and dress them properly; she should take care the ritual offerings and lead the ritual ceremonies.
A small committee consisting of close relatives and friends from both families is set up. The size depends to the size of the party, how many guests should be invited, 300, 500, 1000 or more guests. In fact a wedding ceremony is a big show. Really the committee should work hard on voluntarily basis. The most important thing here is the execution of IJAB, the religious and civil registration, which should legalize the wed couple as legitimate husband and wife before the law.
The committee should appoint people in charge of different jobs such as: protocol, food and beverage, art performance of the gamelan music group and the dance, setting up the reception hall complete with decoration, the appointment of master of ceremony, the appointment of some elder distinguish women to do the siraman (holy bathing), the appointment of who should be witnesses for IJAB, the appointment of who should deliver the welcome speech during reception, the appointment of who should be responsible for transportation, communication and security matters etc. This is the manifestation of the spirit of Gotong Royong/ Mutual Cooperation.

• Peningsetan
Peningsetan derives from the word singset means to tie up. It is commitment that a marriage should be implemented, the families of both sides have agreed. The parents should become “in-laws”. On the peningsetan occasion, the family of the man visits the parents and the family of the bride. They are bringing some gifts as follow:
A set of Suruh Ayu (Suruh: betel leaf, Ayu: beautiful), betel leaves with the necessary supplement, wishing for a safety.
Several Batik cloths with different patterns, wishing happiness and the best things in life such as the patterns of sidoluhur, sidomukti etc. (please click article of Batik)
Materials for KEBAYA (women shirts) White waist sash for women as a sign of a strong willingness.
Some fruits, wishing a good health.
Rice, sugar, salt, cooking oil etc symbolizing the basic foodstuffs need in life.
A set of ring for the couple.
Some money, a contribution for the wedding ceremony.
• Tarub Decoration
Usually one day before the wedding party, the gate of the bride’s parents should be decorated with Tarub as has been described above.
• SIRAMAN Ceremony
Siraman means to take a bath. The Siraman in the wedding ritual is meant to clean the couple to become clean, their bodies as well as their souls. The Siraman ceremony usually should be organized one day prior to the IJAB and Panggih rituals, in the afternoon. Siraman of the bride should be conducted in her parents’ residence as for the bridegroom in his parents’ house.
For this ritual some preparations have to be made, such as:
The place of the Siraman, in the family bathroom or in a place specially designed for the purpose. Nowadays the second alternative is more common.
The lists of persons who should bath the couple. Instead of the parents, some elderly distinguished women should be invited among other their grand mothers. They are selected due to their good moral behavior. The numbers are limited usually to seven. Seven in Javanese is PITU, so they should give PITULUNGAN means help.
Items which must be prepared.
o A big bowl for water usually made of copper or bronze.
o Water from a well or spring
o Setaman flowers consist of rose, yasmin, magnolia, cananga, to be put in the water.
o Wet powder-five colors, should function like a soap.
o Traditional shampoo and conditioner such as ash of rice straw, coconut milk and tamarind juice.
o 2 coconuts, tied up together
o A small chair, covered with: Old mat White cloth Several kind of plant leaves Dlingo Bengle herbs Bango tulak cloths (4 patterns) against evil deed. Lurik woven fabrics with design YUYU SEKANDANG and PULA WATU.
o White cotton cloth to be wear during siraman
o Batik cloth of Grompol and NAGASARI design
o Towel
o Kendi – earthenware flask with a neck and spout.
o Gayung – a water dipper.

• Sajen
Sajen / Sesajen is an offering for SIRAMAN Traditionally sajen/offering in Javanese ritual is considered very important. It has a deep symbolic meaning, in short:

o Requesting protection from God, the Creator
o Remembering the ancestors, so their souls live in peace in eternal world and hopefully got a blessing from them.
o Avoiding evil deeds from spirit and human being.
o The ritual should be safe and successful.

• Siraman’s sajen among other consist of:
o Tumpeng ROBYONG; a decorated Robyong rice cone, with the wish to be in safety.
o Tumpeng GUNDUL; rice cone with no decoration.
o Cold food
o Bananas and other fruits
o A chicken egg
o A Peeled coconut
o Coconut sugar
o A latern
o Telon flowers (cananga, yasmin, magnolia)
o Seven kinds of porridge
o Sweet cookies
o Cookies made of glutinous rice
o A cock
The family of the woman should send envoys to the family of the bridegroom, a small bowl of holy water, consists of water and flowers. This holy water, called banyu suci PERWITOSARI (banyu: water, suci: holy, perwitosari: essence of life) should be pourred in the water in the bridgroom’s house.

2) When the Wedding Ceremony held (Wedding Reception)
The difference in the income level of the individuals will, needless to say, have a great bearing on the extent of the wedding celebrations. Weddings in Jakarta range from simple meals in the family home, to small receptions in community centers to grand extravagant affairs in the Jakarta Convention Center or 5-star hotel ballrooms.
At most wedding receptions, the guests arrive, sign the guest book, accept their thank you token, deposit their gift and enter the reception hall. The path into the reception hall will be flanked left and right with members of the extended families, often dressed in similar traditional dress. A smile and nod to some of these people would be appropriate. Following the family members may be young men and women holding a chain of flowers. This is called the pagar ayu or ‘fence of beauty’.
If you arrive on time you will be able to witness the procession of the wedding couple into the reception hall. Depending on the wealth, social standing or ethnic group, this procession can be quite impressive. The bride and groom may be preceded by dancers who give a traditional dance performance before the wedding couple goes on stage. Or the performance may come after the bride and groom are seated. The parents of the bride and groom and other senior family members will follow the couple in procession into the room.
Then, come the speeches, a representative of each family will address the crowd to thank them for their attendance and to give long, complex expressions of regret if any arrangements for the reception are lacking or found wanting. Depending on whether or not you have one or two representatives speak (thank goodness at some weddings there is only one person representing both families), the speeches can take up to half an hour.
After the speeches, the guests are invited to come to the stage and shake the hands of the bride and groom and their parents. Depending on the number of guests this receiving line can go on for hours. Traditional music may be played throughout the reception.
After going through the receiving line, the guests are invited to eat. The feast can be quite extensive and is a good opportunity to try cuisine from different regions. It could be as simple as nasi goreng or bakmi goreng, ikan asem-manis to the more elaborate where there will be food stalls with sushi, tempura, kambing guling, dim sum, beef Wellington and other western dishes. Once the speeches are complete, it is also acceptable to eat first and then join the receiving line after your meal if the line is quite long.
In Javanese culture there are differences with Indonesia in general and the differences are;
The wonderful and mystical sound of Javanese music gamelan instruments accompanies a traditional sacred Panggih or Temu (means meeting) between a beautifully make up bride with her handsome bridegroom in front of a house decorated with “Tarub” plant decoration. The bride with traditionally make up with special gelungan (hairdo), wearing shining brilliant and golden jewelries and special dress for this occasion.
The bridegroom also wears special dress for this ceremony. The couple has to appear in their best, are treated and honored by those who present in this wedding party as King and Queen of the day. As a traditional rule, the happy party takes place in the house of the bride’s parents. The bride’s parents are the ones who organize the marriage ceremony. The gate of the house must be decorated with Tarub consist of different Tuwuhan (plants and leaves). This has symbolic meanings.
1) Banana Trees with stem of ripe bananas meaning: The husband could be a good leader of the family in the society. As banana trees which could grow well easily everywhere, the pair could also live well and happy everywhere, in good terms within the environment they live.
2) The Panggih or Temu manten ceremony (meeting of bride and bridegroom)
At a time set for this occasion, the bridegroom accompanied by his close relatives (but not his parents who are not allowed to present during the ritual traditional ceremony) arrive in the house of the bride’s parents and stop in the gate of the house. The bride accompanied by two elderly women on the right and left side walk her out of the bridal room. Her parents and close relatives walk behind her. Preceding the bride are two young girls. PATAH, each bringing a fan. Two elderly women or two young boys bringing two Kembar Mayang, a bouquet ornament, about one meter of height. A woman from the bridegroom family walks forward and gives a Sangggan, (a gift in the form of banana fruits and flowers put in a winnowing tray covered with banana leaves) to the mother of the bride, as a sign of appreciation to the hostess of the ceremony.
3) The Ritual of WIJI DADI
The bridegroom crash a chicken egg with his right foot and then washed by the bride using water mixed with several kinds of flowers. It depicts that the bridegroom is ready to become a responsible father and the bride should faithfully serve her husband.
4) TUKAR KALPIKA
Exchange of wedding rings as a sign of love. Then followed by the rituals of Kacar Kucur and others.
5) The Ritual of KACAR KUCUR or TAMPA KAYA
With the help of the Pemaes, the couple walk arm in arm or more precisely holding each other with their little finger to the site of Kacar Kucur or Tampa Kaya ritual in a chair in front of the house’s KROBONGAN. It depicts that the husband should give all his income to his wife. The bridegroom gives to the bride some soybeans, peanuts, paddy rice, corns, yellow rice, Dlingo bengle herbs, flowers and coins of different values, the quantity of coins must be even. The bride carefully receives these gifts in a small white cloth, above an old mat which is put on her lap. She should be a good careful housewife.
6) The Ritual of DAHAR KLIMAH or DAHAR KEMBUL
They are eating together, feeding each other.
7) The Ritual of SUNGKEMAN
The couple should kneel and asks a blessing from their parents. First to the parents of the bride, then to the parents of the bridegroom.

C. WEDDING TRADITIONS IN UNITED STATES
Weddings in America are just as diverse as the couple who comes together to share their lives forever. American Traditional weddings take place in a church with family and friends in attendance to help celebrate the joyous occasion. Weddings in America also take place in chapels scattered throughout the U.S., most renowned in America. Some couples choose a wedding ceremony on a beach or in a garden. Whatever location you choose for your wedding ceremony, here is a look at some of the customs and traditions that seem to stay with couples no matter where they are.

1) Preparation Before Wedding Ceremony
The common superstition these days regarding the wedding dress is that the groom is not supposed to see the bride in her wedding dress before the wedding day. There is also the superstition for the bride to avoid wearing the dress before the day and see herself in the mirror because something to prevent the wedding may happen. This is a problem for the brides who want to make sure everything should be perfect on the day. All brides deserve a perfectly-fitting dress. Some who still want to follow this superstition fit the lining of the dress, and leave all trust to the dress maker.

2) When the Wedding Ceremony held (wedding reception)
• Vows
It is very common in America for the bride and groom to write their own wedding vows. The vows are written in the individual’s own words and express his or her own unique feelings. Freely expressing their love and commitment allows for a more personalized wedding ceremony.
• Bridal showers
Bridal showers where originally for the bride to embrace her friendship with female friends. In the 1880s, bridal showers became an event for friends to give small gifts to the bride. Today it is common for the maid of honor to plan a large, lavish event in honor of the bride.
• The Groom’s cakes
Groom’s cakes were originally given to guests as reception gifts. They were dark fruit cakes that lasted for long periods of time. Modern groom’s cakes are a reflection of the groom’s creativity and individualism. They can be made into any shape, size and flavor.
• Wedding Gifts
Gifts are commonly given to the bride and groom at the wedding reception. Traditional American gifts are usually for the married couple’s new life together. Common wedding gifts include money, appliances, kitchen utensils and decor.
• Rings
Rings, because of its circular shape, symbolize eternity, endlessness… thus a never-ending marriage. Rings can be made of gold, platinum and other metals. Some are encrusted with jewels to signify the value of a couple’s love. Some couples have their names or messages engraved on the rings before the wedding. During the wedding ceremony, the Ring Boy (also often called the Ring Bearer) takes the rings up on a pillow so the bride and groom can exchange rings.
• Flower girls
Flower girls are the cute girls at the head of the wedding procession. They spread petals down the aisle for the bride to walk on flowers. The flowers the girls carry or strew about symbolize fertility and hope. Others say that in the early times the bride and groom were made to wear flowers to ward off evil spirits. Either way, the beauty of flowers and the cuteness of flower girls add cheer to the wedding festivities.
Nowadays, one will see the changing face of the flower girl. Some girls do not strew flower petals on the way to altar. Some flower girls carry a mall bouquet or a basket of flowers instead.
Some flower girls cannot be technically called flower girls because they don’t have flowers. Some strew confetti down the aisle. Some blow bubbles. I’ve seen a wedding where the flower girls carried teddy bears.
Choosing a Flower Girl is an important decision. Some couples choose a bigger girl instead of a smaller one, but substitutes as a junior bridesmaid instead of being a flower girl. There are weddings when smaller girls are put into wagons and these are rolled down the aisle. Other couples with significant (trained) pets in their lives may also be included in the entourage as a flower pet or ring bearer pet.
• Ring Boy (or Ring Bearer)
The Ring Boy or Ring Bearer is a young boy who is special to the couple and is tasked to carry a pillow with the wedding rings on it during the procession. During the exchange of vows, the ring boy hands the pillow to the couple for them to exchange the rings.
• Receiving Line
The reception line is where the Bridge’s Parents, Grooms Parents, and Bride and Groom, and may include the maid of honor and best man. The receiving line is where guests can be introduced to the other side of the family
After the wedding ceremony a receiving line of the Bride and Groom along with their Mothers and it may include the maid of honor traditionally, but often includes the entire wedding party.
• Throwing the Bouquet
Single ladies in attendance at the wedding reception are invited to come up and try to catch the bride’s bouquet. This is a custom that represents which lady will be the next to be married. As the custom goes, she is to take a small piece of the wedding cake home and slip it under her pillow that very night. She will then have a dream about the man she will soon marry
• Wedding cakes
Wedding cakes are not just dessert to be served to guests during reception. The wedding cake is cut together by the couple during the wedding reception. Then the husband and wife exchange bites of the cake. This is the first act the couple does together as husband and wife.
The sweet wedding cake symbolizes caring and nurturance between the couple. Wedding cakes are also usually white, to symbolize purity. In ancient Rome, the wedding cake is a loaf of bread. This cake is broken over the bride’s head. The guests would then scramble for the crumbs.
• Wedding Location
Weddings are traditionally held in places of worship. Churches, chapels and temples are usual venues to get married. Often a wedding venue is chosen because of its significance to the bride or groom. It could be a church where one attended growing up, etc. Or a parish church officiated by a favorite priest. Some couples pick a place of worship because of its excellent artistic or historical attributes.
Some couples choose to get married where marriage licenses are easier to acquire, such as Las Vegas or a country with easy application process. Some couples choose to get married in their homes.
Other couples are more adventurous and pick an assortment of venues to exchange their ideas. Some want to hold their wedding outdoors. A pretty garden, the sea, a public park are beautiful places that will make a wedding memorable. Other couples go all out with their creativity to make their wedding unique. Sometimes, a hobby or interest will naturally dictate what wedding location is most ideal for a couple. Some couples have gotten married airborne, under the sea or up the mountains.
There is no limit to where a wedding can be held. As long as a place is special for both the bride and groom, any place is the perfect place to hold a wedding.

The Report of Intercultural Differences between Indonesia and United Stateson Wedding Tradition
The Similarities and differences of Indonesian and American wedding tradition
No Case Indonesia America
1. Invitation In Indonesia the invitations are for families, friends, and neighbors. In this case, Americans also do as what Indonesians do.
2. Engagement In Indonesia the procession of engagement is more formal which is the man’s family come to the woman’s family to make agreement or deal. In America, the procession of engagement is informal, just both man and woman who will get married know, without known by the family.
3. Wedding rehearsal dinner In Indonesia there is no wedding rehearsal dinner but as the changing in Javanese culture there is as like course of practicing to be a couple named “RAPAK” usually it under control of Department of Religious Affairs.
There is rehearsal dinner to practice before the wedding party held.
4. The place of wedding reception In Indonesia commonly wedding reception held in front of the house, but there is no consideration which wedding reception should take place, it can be in Hotel, Garden, etc In America commonly wedding reception held in church, , but there is no consideration which wedding reception should take place, it can be in Hotel, Garden, etc
5. Vows There are vows but it is written in Akta Nikah, and there is no freedom of the couple to write their vows. For the bride and groom to write their own wedding vows. The vows are written in the individual’s own words and express his or her own unique feelings. Freely expressing their love and commitment allows for a more personalized wedding ceremony.

6. Wedding gifts There are two kinds of wedding gifts, for the bride from the groom and from guest; from the groom to the bride; peningset, maskawin, sajen / gegawan. And from the guest; it can be money, photo’ frame, food, décor. Traditional American gifts are usually for the married couple’s new life together. Common wedding gifts include money, appliances, kitchen utensils and decor.

7. The groom’s cake There is no Groom’s cakes were originally given to guests as reception gifts.

8. Oleh – oleh or the gift for the guest In many weddings attendees are given a small token upon their arrival, a fan, key chain or other item. Attached to this item will be a thank you for your attendance. There is no
9. Wedding dress Depend on the ethnic of the couple who are getting married because each ethnic group has different wedding dress (batik, traditional textiles, kebaya) and different marriage ceremonies and customs. The wedding dress nowadays is usually believed to have to be white or ivory, as this symbolizes purity. Commonly the bride wears white or ivory gown.
10. Bridal Bouquet There is no bridal bouquet which is from the groom but sometime the bride brings bridal bouquet which is from the even organizer. The type of flowers the bride clutches during the wedding ceremony signifies her emotions towards the marriage.
11. The veil of the bride Sometimes the bride wears the veil because she is a Moslem, certainly she wear to cover her aurat. The purpose of the bride wearing a veil dates back to when people believed evil spirits were around to try and ruin the wedding ceremony.
12. Bridesmaids In Indonesia bridesmaids called kembar mayang and they have to be always beside the couples when they want to meet each other. They will be always beside the couples when they want to meet each other.
13. Rings Rings, because of its circular shape, symbolize eternity, endlessness. Thus a never-ending marriage. Rings can be made of gold, platinum and other metals. Some are encrusted with jewels to signify the value of a couple’s love. Some couples have their names or messages engraved on the rings before the wedding. Rings, because of its circular shape, symbolize eternity, endlessness. Thus a never-ending marriage. Rings can be made of gold, platinum and other metals. Some are encrusted with jewels to signify the value of a couple’s love. Some couples have their names or messages engraved on the rings before the wedding.
14. Flower Girls There is no Flower girls are the cute girls at the head of the wedding procession. They spread petals down the aisle for the bride to walk on flowers. The flowers the girls carry or strew about symbolize fertility and hope.
15. Receiving line The reception line is where guests pass and usually here is full of people who are the bride’s family to welcome the guests and receive the gift of the guests. The reception line is where the Bridge’s Parents, Grooms Parents, and Bride and Groom, and may include the maid of honor and best man. The receiving line is where guests can be introduced to the other side of the family
16. Throwing Rice
In Indonesia especially Javanese has ritual that is similar with it, namely kacar-kucur, the groom give gives to the bride some soybeans, peanuts, paddy rice, corns, yellow rice, Dlingo bengle herbs, flowers and coins of different values, the quantity of coins must be even. The bride carefully receives these gifts in a small white cloth, above an old mat which is put on her lap. The act of attendants throwing rice at the new couple after their wedding ceremony signifies that they wish the couple happiness and prosperity.
17. Wedding Car
There is no special specification for wedding car in Indonesia even tough in certain area the couple ride dokar or Pedi cab. The wedding car is just as important in the wedding rites. The wedding car is the first venue for a couple to be alone and have privacy after they leave the church or the reception.
18. Throwing the Bouquet
In Indonesia there is no throwing the bouquet but there is similar activity like this, when the Pager bagus throw up the banana tree on the tend. Single ladies in attendance at the wedding reception are invited to come up and try to catch the bride’s bouquet. This is a custom that represents which lady will be the next to be married
19. Ijab Ijab ceremony is the most important requirement to legalize a marriage. The implementation of Ijab is in accordance with the religion of the couple. There is no Ijab, but there is ritual which is like Ijab.
20. Tukar Kalpika/ Exchange of wedding rings Exchange of wedding rings as a sign of love but sometimes the ring is the maskawin from the groom to the bride. Exchange of wedding rings as a sign of love. It is accustomed to do in USA

REFERENSES
An Ehow contributor. 2003. Marriage Tradition in America. http://www.ehow.com/facts_5024086_marriage-traditions-america.html accessed on Wednesday 09/11/11

Negoro.suryo, 1998. Traditional Javanese Wedding Ceremony.http://home.wanadoo.nl/javas/Cultuur/Joglosemar- Wedding/WeddingCeremony.htm Accessed on Wednesday 09/11/11

http://www.elitedresses.com/American_Wedding_Customs_s/63.htm

http://www.catholicbrides.com/catholic-information/planning-your-catholic-ceremony/wedding-customs-traditions-and-superstitions

http://www.expat.or.id/info/weddings.html

http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/locations/north_american_traditions/united_states_traditions.html

Teacher-Student Problem Relationships

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: Kumpulan tugas.

"Two is better than lonely"

Names : Akhyat Hilmi (D05209053)
M. Teguh Prasetiyo (D05209038)
Subject : Cross Culture Understanding (CCU)
Class : B
Topic : Teacher-Student Problem Relationships

A. Write a dialogue
In pairs, discuss what the student and/or teacher should do in the following situations. Then choose TWO to write a dialogue about. Make sure that you have a clear solution to each problem.

1. A student and a teacher are close friends outside the class. They have coffee together often and even go out to movies and restaurants. Nevertheless, the student receives a D as the final grade for the course. The student feels that the teacher should change the grade to a C or a B.

2. In front of the class, the teacher makes an obviously incorrect statement that confuses all but one of the students. This student knows why the teacher made the mistake and feels that it would be a good idea to clarify the misunderstanding for the rest of the class.

3. A teacher is correcting examinations and notices that three students all have the same wrong answers for every question. It is obvious that these students cheated. The teacher must do something about this.

Teacher: Well my students, Most of your works are excellence, but I regret to inform that three of you have the same wrong answers for every question. So I need your clarification
Students: Oh… who are they mom?
Teacher: Ok, I will write on the white board the NIS (Nomor Induk Siswa) of you. Who has the NIS, I please you to come to the office after this class to clarify your works.
In the Office, three students (Romlah, Romli, and Rohaye) and the teacher have a talk.
Teacher : Well Romlah, Romli, and Rohaye, All of you have the same wrong answers in number 5, 6, 7, and 11. So I need your clarification now.
Students : Oh how can it be mom? We did not cheat each other at that time.
Teacher : So, to ensure me that you did not cheat each other; I will give you the questions number 5, 6, 7, and 11. And do it now here!

4. In a course on world religions, one student is constantly trying to prove that his or her religion is the best. This student’s attitude bothers the other students who have different religions and they complain to the teacher. The teacher must respond to this situation.
Teacher: Oh I think you must stop arguing about your religion, although we have different religion, we might not argue that our religion as the best religion because we have to respect other religions.

B. Answer the following question based on the problem above. Give your logical explanation.

1. Should teachers try to establish personal relationships with their students? Why or why not?
Answer:
Yes, as the teacher we have to establish personal relationship (Raport) with our students in order we can deliver the materials well and the students will not hesitate to ask if there is something unclear or need more explanation. Not only that having good relationship between teacher and students, it will make the class comfortable, fun, and interesting.

2. Should the teacher always be an authority figure or should the teacher try to establish egalitarian relationships with students? Why?

Answer:
No. But the teacher should establish egalitarian relationship with the students because as a teacher, we are not only their teacher but we have to be like their friend, their parent. So there is no distance between students and us. Even so, as a teacher we have to be able to act as a teacher, their friends, even their parent in appropriate time (condition) in order the students will not underestimate us.

3. Should teachers be strict or lenient with students? Why?

Answer:
In our opinion becoming strict or lenient teacher depends on the situation, when the students are naughty, they do not obey the rules even they do not respect us, we have to be strict teacher to make them not naughty, in order they will obey the rules, and they will respect us. In this case, strict is not about violence but it is more about approaching heart to heart by giving advices.

4. Should teachers encourage students to ask questions? Why?

Answer:
Yes, because to know our students have paid attention to the materials that we have explained or not. Because rationally if the students ask questions indicates that the students paid attention to us. Not only that, students’ questions signs that they encourage to get more knowledge about the materials that we deliver.

5. Should a student be free to express an opinion that differs from the teacher’s? Why?
Answer:
Yes, because among teacher and the students should have good discussion about the material in order there will not be misunderstanding, something hidden, and to make the material clear. Having different ideas between teacher and students commonly happens because naturally different person different idea. Addition, the student who has different opinion should express politely and the teacher should respond it wisely.

Mid Term CCU

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: Kumpulan tugas.

Having vacation with my girl friend in Bentar Probolinggo Jawatimur

Name : Akhyat Hilmi
Nim : D5209053

A. Individual Task
• An analysis on Intercultural experience (Follow-up activity after the presentation)
Debriefing questions:
1. What surprises you when knowing other people’s experience? Give 5 examples
a. The first someone’s experience that surprises me comes from Azam Jahangier who is a student of VU University, he is undergraduate student who is studying Sociology. He speaks Dutch, English, Urdu, and Arabic.
When he wanted to go back from UNAIR to IAIN Sunan Ampel he had said to the Taxi driver that his destination was IAIN Sunan Ampel but the driver brought him To Makam Sunan Ampel because the driver listened that azam had mentioned “ MAKAM” whereas he actually said IAIN not MAKAM.

b. The following someone’s experience that surprises me comes from Angie braneman who is lecturer in Petra University in Surabaya. She has been in Surabaya more than 3 years.
One day in her boarding house, Ibu kos (the owner of the boarding house) ask to her. Because she has a lot of activities that make her always out of her room, his Ibu Kos asked to her “Angie kenapa jarang pulang?” She was in hurry so she leaved her and smiled.
After that, she never met Ibu Kos and she had tour for a couple weeks, and when she was back, she met Ibu Kos, directly she said “ Angie kalau mau pindah kekamar sebelah tidak apa – apa” angie said “ tidak apa- apa bu saya nyaman dengan kamar saya”Ibu kos directly said “ tidak apa-apa angie. So here there is misunderstanding between angie and ibu kos because of angie’s smile. Ibu kos thought that angie’ smile means she felt uncomfortable with her room and wanted to move to another room.

c. The following someone’s experience that surprises me comes from mom Fitriah as’ad who is lecturer in IAIN Sunan Ampel and she has ever been in AUSSIE.
One day she was invited to come in an event namely POTLUCK that is an event which obeyed all the invitees to bring their own meal. At that time when she got the invitation directly she thought that POTLUCK is an event that obeyed the invitees to bring the plate because she translated that word semantically, so she got the meaning of such word is bringing our own plate.
Fortunately, she directly asked to her friend about it, and finally she knew the real meaning of POTLUCT that is an event that obeyed the invitee to bring their own meal. And she understood that not all words can be translated semantically because some of them have the cultural meaning.
d. The following someone’s experience that surprises me comes from mom Asmiyah who is lecturer in IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya and she has ever been in AUSSIE.
One day she came to one of her friend who is an Australian. She was feeling strange because of the guest service of Australians was so different with Indonesians, especially Javanese.
When she was sitting in the living room she started to feel strange when she knew her friend only gave her a little of meals in very small place. It is totally different with the culture of Indonesia, when there is a guest comes to our house certainly we will serve the guest as well as possible; giving warm welcome, and giving a lot of meals what we have.
e. The following someone’s experience that surprises me comes from Mr. Arif Furqon Who is the professor and lecturer In IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, and he has even been in US for completing his Master.
There are two things comes from him; about idiomatic expression and walking culture.
The first is about idiomatic expression; one day I presentation he said to his friend “don’t push me” because his friends gave him many questions. When he said it, his friend directly said “sorry, I do not push your head”. So from that condition we can know that not all people understand with idiomatic expression.
The second is about walking culture, in Indonesia, people are accustomed to walk in left side of the road but in US is in the contrary, Americans are accustomed to walk in the right side of the road.
2. How might you use this experience in the future?
“Many nonverbal behaviors are culturally specific”
When many nonverbal behaviors are culturally specific, I will really give much attention in implementing nonverbal behaviors in order I can avoid misunderstanding and shock culture. Not only that I will actively ask to the people or citizen of the country where I visit even reading some references related to it.
“Nonverbal behavior has a major impact on what is communicated”
When nonverbal behavior has a major impact on what is communicated, I will use nonverbal behavior carefully because it will raise big potential misunderstanding even misinterpretation between the speaker and the partner. Therefore, I will read some references related to nonverbal behavior that commonly used in the country where I want to visit, even watching films, or videos related to it in order I can avoid misunderstanding while communicating with the people who are the citizens of the country where I visit. Addition, while communicating with the native speaker probably I will decrease even do not use nonverbal behavior because I individually think that if it can be avoided why not?
• SPEECH ACTS: is an act that aspeaker performs when making an utterance.
Example:
- Give a compliment about the clothes someone is wearing.
You look nice on blue (someone is wearing a blue shirt)
1. Give a compliment about a well-written memo, e-mail, or paper.
Wow, your paper is the best paper ever I ever find.
2. Request time off from work or class to attend a family funeral.
Akhyat Hilmi : Mr. Bean, I’m so sorry for disturbing your business
Mr. Bean : It’s Ok, what’s happening?
Akhyat Hilmi : I’m still grieving for my grandmother, so I could not attend to your class.

3. Request more challenging projects at work or school.
# At school
Akhyat Hilmi : Mom, It looks like we are going to finish this task in a minute, would you like to give me more challenging task because I need to sharpen my mind.
The teacher : Sure, wait a minute, I will take it.
4. Use humor to lighten the mood after a stressful meeting.
# after the seminar.
Akhyat hilmi : That’s all the agendas of today, after getting here we will be taking great memories; like how to improve our entrepreneurship, and our public speaking but not for how to be a good eater, eating while the speaker explains the materials.
5. Explain that you will not meet a deadline.
Akhyat hilmi : “sorry mom for disturbing you, I just want to inform you that I could not meet a deadline of submitting the assignment because I will be in US for joining an international seminar”.
6. Request new office furniture or a change of office/dormitory.
Akhyat hilmi says to the owner of dormitory: “Mom, the chair looks like much better to seat if it is replaced with the new one because it does not comfort us when we seat”.
7. Thank someone for his or her help with a project.
# akhyat says thank to his friend Andrew who has helped him in a project.
I only can give a big thank you for your help.
8. Praise a colleague for a well-run conference or event.
Thanks very much, you deserve billion praises for all your hard work making this conference well-run.
9. Critique a supervisor or teacher for being late to a meeting.
I’m so sorry in advance; your latency is a disservice to us,
Would you like to be here before the meeting begins mom?
10. Critique a subordinate or a friend for being late to work.
Akhyat : George, Can you be on time? You have done a great disservice to our business because of your latency.
11. Tell a family member you are not going to a family dinner.
I am so sorry; because I could not go to the dinner.
12. Tell a family member you are not going to a cousin’s wedding.
I am really sorry; I demand a full apology to you because I could not come to a wedding.
13. Apologize for taking a week to respond to an e-mail.
I am so sorry for my late to respond your e-mail.
14. Apologize to a friend for forgetting you had dinner plans and you have now made another commitment.
I am at all sorry for what I have done; I can not have dinner with you because I have another to do.
15. Give someone feedback about how their performance could be improved.
Wow, I am really amazed by how well you looked. I must compliment you on your improvement.
16. Tell someone that something they said offended you.
Forgive me for asking, but do you suppose what have you said does not a bit offend me?
You need to think over before you say.

Increasing Intercultural Awareness through Study Excursion 2011

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: Kumpulan tugas.

Akhyat HIlmi.

Totally mingkem


Increasing Intercultural Awareness through Study Excursion 2011
As a learner who is learning foreign language like English, I do not need only the knowledge about the language itself but also I need to know the culture of the language that I learn. I have to know the culture because it will be terrible if learning the language without learning the culture. As a language learner certainly want to master the language that I learn, and according Karen in her book Foreign Language Teachers and Intercultural Competence. Language learner should not only focus on language but also include a cultural dimension in a broader sense. Language learner should be able to demonstrate that there are connections between language and culture. Well, one of the ways to implement those statements above is joining study excursion 2011 which is one of the most interesting event that can increase my Intercultural awareness. While, many things I did at that moment, specifically I divided some parts; before seminar held, when the seminar ran, and in the keraton.
Well, in that time I was chosen as the committee of that event, it encouraged me to do my best. Taking some days to prepare that event, after preparing and preparing, finally the time had come, we went to Jogja at morning, and arrived at the hotel in the afternoon. And the main agenda in the hotel is Seminar, before the seminar began; I got great chance to have a short conversation with all speakers, Ebrima, Hercio, and Ratha. An attractive thing that I found when I had a talk with Ratha who is a Cambodian; he speaks english, French, and his mother language but his dialect is like ambon ethnic. We talked much about differences between Indonesian and Cambodian; I found some difficulties to understand what he said because he spoke fast and a bit unclear. Fortunately the interesting that I found when I asked whether the way of all Cambodians speak like him, directly he smiled and said “of course not”. And when he asked me what my opinion about Cambodian, because I never knew about Cambodian, so I just said that probably all Cambodians are like him, the way they smile, welcome, and speak totally like him. He laughed and said that most people who are Indonesians when he asked opinion about Cambodian, they did not know and tended to judge all Cambodians are like me. Immediately, we laughed, laughed, and laughed.
From that short talk, I can get some values of cultural aspect. Cultural diversity creates confusion and amusement when I talk about something that I never know before (lack of knowledge). At that time Confusion made me laugh because I did not know what to do except laughed, while amusement came when I know that Ratha was confused with my reaction, so he followed me to laugh.
After having short talk with them, we directly went to the hall to conduct the seminar. In the meantime, after I opened the seminar without waiting for long, the seminar began with Ratha’s turn to present, he presented about his country, culture, similarities, and differences between Indonesia and Cambodia. An interesting thing that is totally deferent with Indonesia is about celebrating New Year, Cambodians celebrate New Year as like Indonesians celebrate Ied day.
While, Ebrima, a Moslem from Gambia, South Africa got the second turn to present, He presented about his country. He talked more about cultural shock and the differences between Indonesians and Africans perspective of speaking manner. Africans tend to speak loudly and in the contrary, because he lives in central java, he viewed that Indonesians are accustomed to speak slowly and smoothly.
And the last turn belonged to Hercio, a foreigner who comes from Timor Leste. He presented about his country, all cultural aspects, and cultural shock. An interesting thing is without decreasing his nationalistic, he state his admittance to Indonesia that Indonesia is much better in all aspects than Timor leste.
Many things I learn from that section, their explanation about their own country makes me know that different country, different culture. But there are two valuable things that I got, they are; first, when we live in certain country which certainly has different culture with our culture, cultural diversity probably raises a problem, besides adapting and self-awareness, increasing cultural awareness is needed. Second, Admit that we feel, see, and we do not know. As what hercio does, he admits that his country is not better than Indonesia. The process of becoming culturally awareness run when we try to be able to aware and admit our environment, assume the differences and the similarities.
On the following day, after having breakfast and closing ceremony, directly we went to Keraton, a kind of palace where the king and his family live. We arrived there at 09.00 and in the meantime there are lots of visitors who are dominated by Indonesians. Ya, it seems bad news. When we entered to Keraton, we were guided by a woman who is a guide of Keraton, I tried to enjoy the view, condition, and her explanation. During she guided us, I never stopped to turn around looking for foreigners, so worry but wonderful. I saw many foreigners who were busy listening to what the guide said and to take pictures. After forcing to listen what she explained, finally I found my time that I had waited and waited, Ya time for Hunting foreigners. Many times I tried to look for foreigner who speaks English but my luck had not come yet, I did not give up of finding Foreigners who speak English.
After hunting and hunting, finally my friends and I found foreigners, who can speak English. From some foreigners whom I met, I was really interested to two interviewees. The First is an American girl (Picture 1), she never stop to give much compliment to us as Indonesian, because she though that Indonesians are very kind, cheerful and respectful which is proved by many people like to say hello and giving warm smile to another even they do not know each other. From that interview I’m really proud of Indonesia and the culture, respectful and kindness which can make them comfortable, and those aspects should be defended because they are very valuable things which are not belonged by another country.
The second is when I interviewed with two women who are Americans also; they were enjoying their travel to go around Indonesia. They felt cultural shock when they were in Indonesia because they find difficulties to adapt with new environment. While they felt a bit uncomfortable when they were listening to adzan because they though that if we want to invite another one to pray we can do anther thing which does not disturb someone else, for example via telephone, email, or sms. (Afterwards they laughed and my friends and I also followed to laugh). And they felt disturbed when there is someone who takes their picture without asking permission. But one thing that makes me sad is, they entirely do not care about similarities and differences of my culture and their culture, they argue that similarities and differences are both important, there are multiple ways to face it. From them I can learn that not everyone has cultural awareness, and they tend to ignore the beauty of diversity.
With joining study excursion I get many things dealing with cross culture understanding. The thing that is unforgettable is increasing intercultural awareness which meant to see both aspect negative and positive aspects of cultural differences. While we are in another country which has different culture with our culture defending our culture is also necessary besides we should be adapt and aware of the surroundings.

Evaluating Textbook Perspective Cross Culture Understanding

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: Kumpulan tugas.

Name : Akhyat Hilmi
Nim : D05209053
Subject : Cross Culture Understanding

Evaluating Textbook Perspective Cross Culture Understanding
Identity of the book,
Tittle : Interlanguage: English For Senior High School Student XI Language Study Programme.
Author : Joko Priyana, Zayin Adib Muhammad, Eka Denis Machfutra
Published : Jakarta : Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional , 2008.

 Does the book address specific learners or are there any characteristics of the learners that the book addresses to?
This book, entitled Interlanguage: English For Senior High School Student XI Language Study Programme is for second grade of Indonesian Senior High School Students who are in Indonesia or abroad. It is stated on page iii in the part of “Kata Sambutan”. This book does not mention any other characteristics of the learners that the book addresses to but looking at the content, especially UNIT 4, this book is totally for Indonesia, it is proved by the names which are used such as, bagus, aspani, bayu, and danias which are mentioned on page 63 and 65. And also vocabularies that translated into Indonesia which is on page 66.

 Do they include a variety of cultures or just specific ones such as British or American culture?
Unit 4 of this book includes a variety of cultures, means that not only Indonesian culture but also any other cultures. While the evidences are; on page 64, death penalty for drug traffickers in Singapore, on page 66, there is a cultural tip of the way to give advice in Australia, and on page 69, report of the New York Academy of Medicine. Although it includes a variety of cultures, the language which is used still in the context of English British.

 Do they represent the reality about the target culture or the author’s view?
This unit does not represent the reality about authors’ view but it represents the reality about the target culture, it is British. And the evidence is the language used that is English British that we can identify from the dialog which is on page 65.

 Where is the cultural information taken from? Author’s own ideas or empirical research?
The cultural information that exists in this book, especially Unit 4, is from the result of empirical research. And the evidences are; there are many pictures (on page 59-63, 71), tips (on page 67), and information (on page 68, 71) which are taken from website or internet.

 What subjects do they cover? Are these specific to the target culture? Are there any topics that might not be culturally suitable for the learners in class?
Unit 4 of this book covers a subject which is getiing a drug-free education for students. In this unit covers some information dealing with drugs, how to give advice to the drugs users to get reahabilitation and non drugs users to stay away from drugs. So far, there is no any things that might not be culturally suitable for the learners in class.

 What cultural and social groups are represented? Is this adequate coverage of a variety of people or is this limited to a chosen people? If so, what kind of people are these? Are there any stereotypes?
This Unit of the book represents a culture of Britain’s way to give advice to another, we can identify from the language that used but it might be implemented by Indonesians because it does not against our culture or customs. Not only that, but also there is a little information the way to give advice in Australia which is different with Indonesian’s.

 Does the book include generalizations about the culture? Does it inform the audience of the fact that what is true of the parts is not necessarily true of the parts?
Based on Unit 4, this book includes generalization about the culture because it informs the legality of drugs which is illegal in most countries but legal in certain country. Not only that, it also give a little cultural tip of the way to give advice in Australia.

 Is the cultural information presented with comments such as being good or being bad? Or is it presented without such comments?
There are some cultural information presented in this unit such as mentioning on page 67 which is presented a tip the way to give advice in Australia. And when we read the whole of unit 4, it is entirely about getting drug- education which has purpose to stay away from drug. And the information is not presented with such comments.

 Are there illustrations? If so, are these appropriate to the learners’ native culture? Would additional information be necessary to explain them or are they self-explanatory?
In this unit there are many illustration that proposed to explain or illustrate something, we can see on page 62, it explains kinds of drugs, on page 66 and 69, they illustrate someone who is drug user who is arrested by the police. And I think these pictures are appropriate to our culture. Certainly, these pictures need to get additional information to explain, as like in this unit, they are accompanied by the text that could illustrate what the picture is about.

 What are the activities asked of the learners? Are they familiar to the learners?
In unit 4 learners are asked to do some activities, they are; on page 60, they are asked to write analytical exposition that they find when they were reading a newspaper, magazine, books which are people’s opinion. On page 61, they are asked to answer some questions related to the pictures. On page 65 and 72, they are asked to express what they would say in certain situation (the illustration provided below the instruction), and to act out the dialogue in pairs. On page 67, they are asked to conduct interview which is asked about drugs, and others. Well, actually all of the activities that are asked of the learners are familiar with the learners.

 Would a teacher using this book need specialized training to be able to use it or is there enough information given?
Based on the unit that I have read when a teacher wants to use this book, he/ she does not need to get specialized training in order to be able to use it because there enough information given in this book.

 What are the learners supposed to do with the cultural information such as using actively or just be aware of it for a better understanding of the target culture?
The cultural information that provided in this book especially in Unit 4, the students are supposed to be aware of it for a better understanding of the target culture.

Ringkasan Materi Tafsir

Posted on September 22, 2011 by aqil.
Categories: makalah2 kueren banget.

 Ayat-ayat tentang Allah
1. Tentang keesaan Allah
• Surah al-ihlas 1-4
                •  
Artinya:
1. Katakanlah: “Dia-lah Allah, yang Maha Esa.
2. Allah adalah tuhan yang bergantung kepadanya segala sesuatu.
3. Dia tiada beranak dan tidak pula diperanakkan,
4. Dan tidak ada seorangpun yang setara dengan Dia.”.

• Surah fushshilat 9-12
                                           •                  •          
Artinya:
9. Katakanlah: “Sesungguhnya Patutkah kamu kafir kepada yang menciptakan bumi dalam dua masa dan kamu adakan sekutu-sekutu bagiNya? (yang bersifat) demikian itu adalah Rabb semesta alam”.
10. Dan Dia menciptakan di bumi itu gunung-gunung yang kokoh di atasnya. Dia memberkahinya dan Dia menentukan padanya kadar makanan-makanan (penghuni)nya dalam empat masa. (Penjelasan itu sebagai jawaban) bagi orang-orang yang bertanya.
11. Kemudian Dia menuju kepada penciptaan langit dan langit itu masih merupakan asap, lalu Dia berkata kepadanya dan kepada bumi: “Datanglah kamu keduanya menurut perintah-Ku dengan suka hati atau terpaksa”. keduanya menjawab: “Kami datang dengan suka hati”.
12. Maka Dia menjadikannya tujuh langit dalam dua masa. Dia mewahyukan pada tiap-tiap langit urusannya. dan Kami hiasi langit yang dekat dengan bintang-bintang yang cemerlang dan Kami memeliharanya dengan sebaik-baiknya. Demikianlah ketentuan yang Maha Perkasa lagi Maha mengetahui.
Analisa penulis: Dari ayat-ayat diatas kita bisa mengetahui Keesaan Allah, bahwa Dia tidak bergantung pada apapun dan tidak pula bisa diperanak pinakan. Tidak hanya itu kita sebagai manusia sudah sepatutnya untuk tidak menyekutukan Allah dengan apapun, karena Allah lah yang telah menciptakan segala yang ada di muka bumi dan dilangit.

2. Tentang asma Allah
• Surah al-Hasyr 22-24
                        •                                 
Artinya:
22. Dialah Allah yang tiada Tuhan selain Dia, yang mengetahui yang ghaib dan yang nyata, Dia-lah yang Maha Pemurah lagi Maha Penyayang.
23. Dialah Allah yang tiada Tuhan selain Dia, Raja, yang Maha Suci, yang Maha Sejahtera, yang Mengaruniakan Keamanan, yang Maha Memelihara, yang Maha perkasa, yang Maha Kuasa, yang memiliki segala Keagungan, Maha suci Allah dari apa yang mereka persekutukan.
24. Dialah Allah yang Menciptakan, yang Mengadakan, yang membentuk Rupa, yang mempunyai asmaaul Husna. bertasbih kepadanya apa yang di langit dan bumi. dan Dialah yang Maha Perkasa lagi Maha Bijaksana.
Analisa penulis: Asmaulhusna adalah nama-nama yang hanya khusus untuk Allah dan tidak boleh dinamakan kepada makhluk. Sebagian Asmaulhusna boleh dinamakan untuk manusia tetapi harus ditambah abdun. dan dari Asmaulhusna bisa kita ketahui tentang kekuasaan dan keagungan Allah.

1. Tentang Kekuasaan Allah
• Surah ar-Rum 20-25
                        ••   •                •          •                                                    

Artinya:
20. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya ialah Dia menciptakan kamu dari tanah, kemudian tiba-tiba kamu (menjadi) manusia yang berkembang biak.
21. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya ialah Dia menciptakan untukmu isteri-isteri dari jenismu sendiri, supaya kamu cenderung dan merasa tenteram kepadanya, dan dijadikan-Nya diantaramu rasa kasih dan sayang. Sesungguhnya pada yang demikian itu benar-benar terdapat tanda-tanda bagi kaum yang berfikir.
22. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya ialah menciptakan langit dan bumi dan berlain-lainan bahasamu dan warna kulitmu. Sesungguhnya pada yang demikan itu benar-benar terdapat tanda-tanda bagi orang-orang yang mengetahui.
23. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya ialah tidurmu di waktu malam dan siang hari dan usahamu mencari sebagian dari karuniaNya. Sesungguhnya pada yang demikian itu benar-benar terdapat tanda-tanda bagi kaum yang mendengarkan.
24. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya, Dia memperlihatkan kepadamu kilat untuk (menimbulkan) ketakutan dan harapan, dan Dia menurunkan hujan dari langit, lalu menghidupkan bumi dengan air itu sesudah matinya. Sesungguhnya pada yang demikian itu benar-benar terdapat tanda-tanda bagi kaum yang mempergunakan akalnya.
25. Dan di antara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya ialah berdirinya langit dan bumi dengan iradat-Nya. kemudian apabila Dia memanggil kamu sekali panggil dari bumi, seketika itu (juga) kamu keluar (dari kubur).
Analisa penulis: Dari ayat-ayat diatas bisa kita ketahui bahwa terdapat banyak bukti-bukti kekuasaan-Nya, itu bisa dibuktika karena dalam setiap awal ayat diatas diawali dengan kata “ Dan diantara tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya”. dan diantara bukti-bukti kekuasaan-Nya adalah kita manusia diciptakan dari tanah dan bisa berkembang biak serta individu yang satu dan yang lain berbeda-beda, kita diciptakan berpasang – pasangan, tidak hanya itu tetapi Allah juga menjadikan siang dan malam, panas dan hujan, dimana malam untuk tidur dan siang untuk bekerja
 Ayat-ayat tentang manusia
1. Tentang kelebihan manusia
• Surah at-tin 1-6
 •                              
Artinya:
1. Demi (buah) Tin dan (buah) Zaitun,
2. Dan demi bukit Sinai,
3. Dan demi kota (Mekah) ini yang aman,
4. Sesungguhnya Kami telah menciptakan manusia dalam bentuk yang sebaik-baiknya .
5. Kemudian Kami kembalikan Dia ke tempat yang serendah-rendahnya (neraka),
6. Kecuali orang-orang yang beriman dan mengerjakan amal saleh; Maka bagi mereka pahala yang tiada putus-putusnya.

• Surah al-isra’ 70
                  
Artinya:
70. Dan Sesungguhnya telah Kami muliakan anak-anak Adam, Kami angkut mereka di daratan dan di lautan[862], Kami beri mereka rezki dari yang baik-baik dan Kami lebihkan mereka dengan kelebihan yang sempurna atas kebanyakan makhluk yang telah Kami ciptakan.

[862] Maksudnya: Allah memudahkan bagi anak Adam pengangkutan-pengangkutan di daratan dan di lautan untuk memperoleh penghidupan.
Analisa penulis: Dari ayat-ayat diatas bisa kita ketahui bahwa manusia diciptakan dalam bentuk yang sempurna dari makhluk Allah yang lain. Kita bisa bahagia dan bersedih kelak diakhirat itu tergantung pada amal ibadah kita dibumi. Tidak hanya itu kita sebagai manusia bisa disebut sempurna karena kita diberi banyak Rahmat yang berupa terjaminya rizki dan segala yang ada dilangit dan dibumi.
2. Tentang kelemahan manusia
• Surah Hud 9-11
   •      •                         •   
Artinya:
9. Dan jika Kami rasakan kepada manusia suatu rahmat (nikmat) dari Kami, kemudian rahmat itu Kami cabut daripadanya, pastilah Dia menjadi putus asa lagi tidak berterima kasih.
10. Dan jika Kami rasakan kepadanya kebahagiaan sesudah bencana yang menimpanya, niscaya Dia akan berkata: “Telah hilang bencana-bencana itu daripadaku”; Sesungguhnya Dia sangat gembira lagi bangga,
11. Kecuali orang-orang yang sabar (terhadap bencana), dan mengerjakan amal-amal saleh; mereka itu beroleh ampunan dan pahala yang besar.

• Surah al-Ashr 1-3
  •              
Artinya:
1. Demi masa.
2. Sesungguhnya manusia itu benar-benar dalam kerugian,
3. Kecuali orang-orang yang beriman dan mengerjakan amal saleh dan nasehat menasehati supaya mentaati kebenaran dan nasehat menasehati supaya menetapi kesabaran.

• Surat al-Isra’ 11,67,100
         
Artinya: Dan manusia mendoa untuk kejahatan sebagaimana ia mendoa untuk kebaikan. dan adalah manusia bersifat tergesa-gesa.

     •              • 
Artinya: Dan apabila kamu ditimpa bahaya di lautan, niscaya hilanglah siapa yang kamu seru kecuali Dia, Maka tatkala Dia menyelamatkan kamu ke daratan, kamu berpaling. dan manusia itu adalah selalu tidak berterima kasih.

               
Artinya: Katakanlah: “Kalau seandainya kamu menguasai perbendaharaan-perbendaharaan rahmat Tuhanku, niscaya perbendaharaan itu kamu tahan, karena takut membelanjakannya”. dan adalah manusia itu sangat kikir.

• Surah al-Ma’arij 19-35
 •   •                         •                 •                  •                               •  
Artinya:
19. Sesungguhnya manusia diciptakan bersifat keluh kesah lagi kikir.
20. Apabila ia ditimpa kesusahan ia berkeluh kesah.
21. Dan apabila ia mendapat kebaikan ia Amat kikir.
22. Kecuali orang-orang yang mengerjakan shalat.
23. Yang mereka itu tetap mengerjakan shalatnya.
24. Dan orang-orang yang dalam hartanya tersedia bagian tertentu.
25. Bagi orang (miskin) yang meminta dan orang yang tidak mempunyai apa-apa (yang tidak mau meminta).
26. Dan orang-orang yang mempercayai hari pembalasan.
27. Dan orang-orang yang takut terhadap azab Tuhannya.
28. Karena Sesungguhnya azab Tuhan mereka tidak dapat orang merasa aman (dari kedatangannya).
29. Dan orang-orang yang memelihara kemaluannya.
30. Kecuali terhadap isteri-isteri mereka atau budak-budak yang mereka miliki[1512], Maka Sesungguhnya mereka dalam hal ini tiada tercela.
31. Barangsiapa mencari yang di balik itu[1513] Maka mereka Itulah orang-orang yang melampaui batas.
32. Dan orang-orang yang memelihara amanat-amanat (yang dipikulnya) dan janjinya.
33. Dan orang-orang yang memberikan kesaksiannya.
34. Dan orang-orang yang memelihara shalatnya.
35. Mereka itu (kekal) di syurga lagi dimuliakan.

Analisa penulis:
Dari ayat- ayat diatas bisa kita ketahui bahwa kita sebagai manusia juga diciptakan atau diatqdirkan untuk mempunnyai beberapa kelemahan seperti, rasa putus asa, tergesah-gesah, kikir dan kurangnya rasa syukur serta senantiasa mengeluh. Dalam menghadapi brbagai ujian ataupun cobaan kita sebagai manusia sering kali mengeluh, dan kalau rasa keluh itu tidak segera disingkairkan maka kita akan terjerembab dalam keputus asaan. Begitu sebaliknya, kalau kita sudah bisa bangkit dan seolah mempunyai kekuasaan maka rasa kikir kita akan muncul yang akan disertai oleh berpudarnya rasa syukur atas segala nikmat dan anugerah yang telah diberikan kepada kita. Tidak hanya itu kita sangat rentan untuk tergolong manusia yang benar- benar dalam kerugian kecuali kalau kita mau beriman dan amar ma’ruf nahi munkar serta senantiasa bersabar.

 Ayat-ayat tentang Alam
1. Tentang penciptaan dan pemeliharaan Alam
• Surah al-A’raf 54-58
                •                                     •  •                •       •        •                           
Artinya:
54. Sesungguhnya Tuhan kamu ialah Allah yang telah menciptakan langit dan bumi dalam enam masa, lalu Dia bersemayam di atas ‘Arsy[548]. Dia menutupkan malam kepada siang yang mengikutinya dengan cepat, dan (diciptakan-Nya pula) matahari, bulan dan bintang-bintang (masing-masing) tunduk kepada perintah-Nya. Ingatlah, menciptakan dan memerintah hanyalah hak Allah. Maha suci Allah, Tuhan semesta alam.
55. Berdoalah kepada Tuhanmu dengan berendah diri dan suara yang lembut. Sesungguhnya Allah tidak menyukai orang-orang yang melampaui batas[549].
56. Dan janganlah kamu membuat kerusakan di muka bumi, sesudah (Allah) memperbaikinya dan Berdoalah kepada-Nya dengan rasa takut (tidak akan diterima) dan harapan (akan dikabulkan). Sesungguhnya rahmat Allah Amat dekat kepada orang-orang yang berbuat baik.
57. Dan Dialah yang meniupkan angin sebagai pembawa berita gembira sebelum kedatangan rahmat-Nya (hujan); hingga apabila angin itu telah membawa awan mendung, Kami halau ke suatu daerah yang tandus, lalu Kami turunkan hujan di daerah itu, Maka Kami keluarkan dengan sebab hujan itu pelbagai macam buah-buahan. seperti Itulah Kami membangkitkan orang-orang yang telah mati, Mudah-mudahan kamu mengambil pelajaran.
58. Dan tanah yang baik, tanaman-tanamannya tumbuh subur dengan seizin Allah; dan tanah yang tidak subur, tanaman-tanamannya hanya tumbuh merana. Demikianlah Kami mengulangi tanda-tanda kebesaran (Kami) bagi orang-orang yang bersyukur.
Analisa penulis:
Dari ayat-ayat diatas kita bisa mengetahui bahwa Allah lah yang menciptakan seagala yang ada dimuka bumi dan dilangit yang didalamnya sedah termasuk matahari, bulan dan bintang . Allah juga membuat fase – fase waktu kehidupan yang berupa siang dan malam serta meniupkan angin dan menurunkan hujan. dan dimuka bumi Allah tumbuhkan tumbuh-tumbuhan. Dan Allah juga mempunyai hak untuk menciptakan subur tidaknya tanaman yang tumbuh. Maka dari itu kita sebagai mausia sudah selayaknya menjaga serta melestarikan.
2. Tentang penciptaan alam untuk manusia
• Surah al-Baqarah 29
    •                
Artinya:
29. Dia-lah Allah, yang menjadikan segala yang ada di bumi untuk kamu dan Dia berkehendak (menciptakan) langit, lalu dijadikan-Nya tujuh langit. dan Dia Maha mengetahui segala sesuatu.

• Surah ibrahim 32-34
            •                         •                   
Artinya:
32. Allah-lah yang telah menciptakan langit dan bumi dan menurunkan air hujan dari langit, kemudian Dia mengeluarkan dengan air hujan itu berbagai buah-buahan menjadi rezki untukmu; dan Dia telah menundukkan bahtera bagimu supaya bahtera itu, berlayar di lautan dengan kehendak-Nya, dan Dia telah menundukkan (pula) bagimu sungai-sungai.
33. Dan Dia telah menundukkan (pula) bagimu matahari dan bulan yang terus menerus beredar (dalam orbitnya); dan telah menundukkan bagimu malam dan siang.
34. Dan Dia telah memberikan kepadamu (keperluanmu) dan segala apa yang kamu mohonkan kepadanya. dan jika kamu menghitung nikmat Allah, tidaklah dapat kamu menghinggakannya. Sesungguhnya manusia itu, sangat zalim dan sangat mengingkari (nikmat Allah).
Analisa penulis:
Dari ayat diatas bisa kita ketahui bahwa Allah lah yang menciptakan segala yang ada dimuka bumi itu semua diperuntukan hanya untuk kita sebagai manusia serta menciptakan langit yang berjumlah tujuh lapis. Tidak hanya itu Allah juga menciptakan hujan, dan karena hujan itu pula tumbuhan bisa hidup serta terbentuknya bahtera dan sungai-sungai. Dan Allah menciptakan matahari dan bulan yang akan senantiasa terus beredar pada orbitnya. Maka dari itu kita sebagai manusia kita sudah sepatutnya menjaga dan melestarikan sebagai bukti rasa syukur kita atas segala sesuatu yang telah diciptakan untuk kita.

3. Tentang kehancuran dan kerusakan Alam
• Surah ar-Rum 41
        ••       
41. Telah nampak kerusakan di darat dan di laut disebabkan karena perbuatan tangan manusi, supay Allah merasakan kepada mereka sebahagian dari (akibat) perbuatan mereka, agar mereka kembali (ke jalan yang benar).

Analisa penulis :
Dari ayat diatas kita bisa ketahui bahwa segala kerusakan dan kehancuran dimuka bumi ini baik didarat ataupun dilaut adalah disebabkanoleh ulah tangan manusia. Karena seperti kita tahu bahwa sebelum manusia diciptaka malaikat telah mengklaim bahwasanya kita manusia lah penyebab utama kerusakan dan kehacuran dimuka bumi.
 Ayat-ayat tentang kemasyarakatan
1. Tentang Pergaulan secara umum
• Surah al-Hujurat 11-13
                                                                       •   •      ••           •      •    

Artinya :
11. Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah sekumpulan orang laki-laki merendahkan kumpulan yang lain, boleh Jadi yang ditertawakan itu lebih baik dari mereka. dan jangan pula sekumpulan perempuan merendahkan kumpulan lainnya, boleh Jadi yang direndahkan itu lebih baik. dan janganlah suka mencela dirimu sendiri[1409] dan jangan memanggil dengan gelaran yang mengandung ejekan. seburuk-buruk panggilan adalah (panggilan) yang buruk sesudah iman[1410] dan Barangsiapa yang tidak bertobat, Maka mereka Itulah orang-orang yang zalim.
12. Hai orang-orang yang beriman, jauhilah kebanyakan purba-sangka (kecurigaan), karena sebagian dari purba-sangka itu dosa. dan janganlah mencari-cari keburukan orang dan janganlah menggunjingkan satu sama lain. Adakah seorang diantara kamu yang suka memakan daging saudaranya yang sudah mati? Maka tentulah kamu merasa jijik kepadanya. dan bertakwalah kepada Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Penerima taubat lagi Maha Penyayang.
13. Hai manusia, Sesungguhnya Kami menciptakan kamu dari seorang laki-laki dan seorang perempuan dan menjadikan kamu berbangsa – bangsa dan bersuku-suku supaya kamu saling kenal-mengenal. Sesungguhnya orang yang paling mulia diantara kamu disisi Allah ialah orang yang paling taqwa diantara kamu. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha mengetahui lagi Maha Mengenal.

• Surat al-Furqon 63

            
63. Dan hamba-hamba Tuhan yang Maha Penyayang itu (ialah) orang-orang yang berjalan di atas bumi dengan rendah hati dan apabila orang-orang jahil menyapa mereka, mereka mengucapkan kata-kata (yang mengandung) keselamatan.

• Surat Al-furqan 67

           
67. Dan orang-orang yang apabila membelanjakan (harta), mereka tidak berlebihan, dan tidak (pula) kikir, dan adalah (pembelanjaan itu) di tengah-tengah antara yang demikian.

• Surat Al Furqan 72
         
72. Dan orang-orang yang tidak memberikan persaksian palsu, dan apabila mereka bertemu dengan (orang-orang) yang mengerjakan perbuatan-perbuatan yang tidak berfaedah, mereka lalui (saja) dengan menjaga kehormatan dirinya.

• Surah ali-Imran 104-105
  •                             
104. Dan hendaklah ada di antara kamu segolongan umat yang menyeru kepada kebajikan, menyuruh kepada yang ma’ruf dan mencegah dari yang munkar[217]; merekalah orang-orang yang beruntung.
105. Dan janganlah kamu menyerupai orang-orang yang bercerai-berai dan berselisih sesudah datang keterangan yang jelas kepada mereka. mereka Itulah orang-orang yang mendapat siksa yang berat,
Analisa penulis : Dari ayat-ayat diatas kita bisa mengetahui apa yang harus dilakukan dan dihindari oleh kita sebagai manusia dalam hidup bermasyarkat atau dalam kemasyarakatan secara umum. Yakni kita dilarang untuk merendahkan sekumpulan atau kaum lain, dilarang untuk menjuluki bahkan mengganti nama panggilan seseorang dengan panggilan yang mengandung celaan atau merendahkan. Dan kita juga dilarang berburuk sangka, karena berburuk sangka adalah perbuatan yang berdosa, Serta mencari – cari kesalahan atau keburukan orang atau bahkan menggunjing satu sama lain. Kita disuruh menghindari perbuatan-perbuatan tercela tersbut karena kita senantiasa diciptakan berbangsa-bangsa, bersuku-suku agar supaya kita saling kenal-mengenal. Mungkin tidak cukup disitu saja melainkan banyak hal lain yang seyogyanya dilakukan, diantaranya kita senantiasa harus selalu rendah hati, tidak hidup dalam kemewahan yang berlebihan dan tidak kikir, selalu jujur, bisa menjaga kehormatan dirinya dari hal – hal yang tidak berfaedah atau bahkan keji. tidak saling berselisih serta Amar ma’ruf nahi munkar.

2. Tentang pergaulan sesama muslim
• Surat ali-Imran 102
     •   •    
102. Hai orang-orang yang beriman, bertakwalah kepada Allah sebenar-benar takwa kepada-Nya; dan janganlah sekali-kali kamu mati melainkan dalam Keadaan beragama Islam.
• Surah an-Nisa’ 59
                              
59. Hai orang-orang yang beriman, taatilah Allah dan taatilah Rasul (Nya), dan ulil amri di antara kamu. kemudian jika kamu berlainan Pendapat tentang sesuatu, Maka kembalikanlah ia kepada Allah (Al Quran) dan Rasul (sunnahnya), jika kamu benar-benar beriman kepada Allah dan hari kemudian. yang demikian itu lebih utama (bagimu) dan lebih baik akibatnya.
• Surat al-Hujurat 9-10
                             •            •    

Artinya :
9. Dan kalau ada dua golongan dari mereka yang beriman itu berperang hendaklah kamu damaikan antara keduanya! tapi kalau yang satu melanggar Perjanjian terhadap yang lain, hendaklah yang melanggar Perjanjian itu kamu perangi sampai surut kembali pada perintah Allah. kalau Dia telah surut, damaikanlah antara keduanya menurut keadilan, dan hendaklah kamu Berlaku adil; Sesungguhnya Allah mencintai orang-orang yang Berlaku adil.
10. Orang-orang beriman itu Sesungguhnya bersaudara. sebab itu damaikanlah (perbaikilah hubungan) antara kedua saudaramu itu dan takutlah terhadap Allah, supaya kamu mendapat rahmat.

• Surah al-Hasyr 9-10

                                                     •   
9. Dan orang-orang yang telah menempati kota Madinah dan telah beriman (Anshor) sebelum (kedatangan) mereka (Muhajirin), mereka (Anshor) ‘mencintai’ orang yang berhijrah kepada mereka (Muhajirin). dan mereka (Anshor) tiada menaruh keinginan dalam hati mereka terhadap apa-apa yang diberikan kepada mereka (Muhajirin); dan mereka mengutamakan (orang-orang muhajirin), atas diri mereka sendiri, Sekalipun mereka dalam kesusahan. dan siapa yang dipelihara dari kekikiran dirinya, mereka Itulah orang orang yang beruntung
10. Dan orang-orang yang datang sesudah mereka (Muhajirin dan Anshor), mereka berdoa: “Ya Rabb Kami, beri ampunlah Kami dan saudara-saudara Kami yang telah beriman lebih dulu dari Kami, dan janganlah Engkau membiarkan kedengkian dalam hati Kami terhadap orang-orang yang beriman; Ya Rabb Kami, Sesungguhnya Engkau Maha Penyantun lagi Maha Penyayang.”

Analisa penulis: Dari ayat-ayat diatas kita bisa mengetahui tentang apa yang harus dilakukan kita sebagai seorang muslim berbaul dengan muslim yang lain, Yakni yang harus kita lakukan adalah taat kepada Allah dan RasulNya, para pemimpin. Dan jika kita mempunyai beda pendapat tentang suatu hal maka kita sudah seharusnya mengembalikan dasar pemecahan masalah pada Alqur’an dan Al hadits.
Kita juga senantiasa harus bisa menjaga perdamaian dan berlaku adil serta menjaga hubungan tali silaturrahim kita sesama muslim seperti yang tercermin pada kaum muhajirin dan kaum anshar, diamana kaum muhajirin sangat menyambut hangat atas kedatangan kaum muhajirin serta mengutamakan kepentingan kaum muhajirin diatas kepentingan kaum anshar itu sendiri sekalipun mereka dalam keadaan kesusahan dan itu terjadi tidak hanya antara kaum ke kaum tetapi juga antar individu.
Serta kita juga dianjurkan untuk saling mendoakn satu sama lain. tentunya yang dimaksudka disini adalah mendoakan kebeikan, tidak sebaliknya. dan kita juga harus bisa berusaha menghapus kedengkian jikalau ada tentunya.

3. Tentang pergaulan dengan non muslim
• Surah al-mumtahanah 8-9
                  •                           
8. Allah tidak melarang kamu untuk berbuat baik dan Berlaku adil terhadap orang-orang yang tiada memerangimu karena agama dan tidak (pula) mengusir kamu dari negerimu. Sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang Berlaku adil.
9. Sesungguhnya Allah hanya melarang kamu menjadikan sebagai kawanmu orang-orang yang memerangimu karena agama dan mengusir kamu dari negerimu, dan membantu (orang lain) untuk mengusirmu. dan Barangsiapa menjadikan mereka sebagai kawan, Maka mereka Itulah orang-orang yang zalim.

• Surah ali-Imran 28
                              
28. Janganlah orang-orang mukmin mengambil orang-orang kafir menjadi wali[192] dengan meninggalkan orang-orang mukmin. barang siapa berbuat demikian, niscaya lepaslah ia dari pertolongan Allah, kecuali karena (siasat) memelihara diri dari sesuatu yang ditakuti dari mereka. dan Allah memperingatkan kamu terhadap diri (siksa)-Nya. dan hanya kepada Allah kembali (mu).
• Surah Ali imran 64
                                
64. Katakanlah: “Hai ahli Kitab, Marilah (berpegang) kepada suatu kalimat (ketetapan) yang tidak ada perselisihan antara Kami dan kamu, bahwa tidak kita sembah kecuali Allah dan tidak kita persekutukan Dia dengan sesuatupun dan tidak (pula) sebagian kita menjadikan sebagian yang lain sebagai Tuhan selain Allah”. jika mereka berpaling Maka Katakanlah kepada mereka: “Saksikanlah, bahwa Kami adalah orang-orang yang berserah diri (kepada Allah)”.

• Surah al-Kafirun 1-5
                  •        
1. Katakanlah: “Hai orang-orang kafir,
2. Aku tidak akan menyembah apa yang kamu sembah.
3. Dan kamu bukan penyembah Tuhan yang aku sembah.
4. Dan aku tidak pernah menjadi penyembah apa yang kamu sembah,
5. Dan kamu tidak pernah (pula) menjadi penyembah Tuhan yang aku sembah.
Analisa penulis: Ayat – ayat diatas menjelaskan tentang pergaulan dengan non muslim. kita sebagai orang muslim tidak dilarang untuk bergaul dengang orang non muslim, dan kita senantiasa harus berlaku adil serta tidak mengusir orang non muslim.
Kita dilarang menjadikan orang non muslim sebagai wali dengan meninggalka orang muslim kecuali dia berbuat demikian karena sesuatu yang terdesak.
Kita boleh tolong menolong dengan non muslim hal yang bersifat keduniawian seperti dalam muamalah, tetapi kita sebagai muslim dilarang tolong menolong dalam bidang keagamaan atau hubungan kita dengan Tuhan kita yakni Allah dan hubungan mereka dengan tuhan mereka.

 Ayat –ayat tentang ibadah
• Surah al-Baqarah 21
 ••          
21. Hai manusia, sembahlah Tuhanmu yang telah menciptakanmu dan orang-orang yang sebelummu, agar kamu bertakwa.

• Surah al-bayyinah 5
            •     
5. Padahal mereka tidak disuruh kecuali supaya menyembah Allah dengan memurnikan ketaatan kepada-Nya dalam (menjalankan) agama yang lurus[1595], dan supaya mereka mendirikan shalat dan menunaikan zakat; dan yang demikian Itulah agama yang lurus.
• Surah az-Zariyat 56
      
56. Dan aku tidak menciptakan jin dan manusia melainkan supaya mereka mengabdi kepada-Ku.
• Surah Luqman 13
               
13. Dan (ingatlah) ketika Luqman berkata kepada anaknya, di waktu ia memberi pelajaran kepadanya: “Hai anakku, janganlah kamu mempersekutukan Allah, Sesungguhnya mempersekutukan (Allah) adalah benar-benar kezaliman yang besar”.
• Surah Luqman 17
             •     
17. Hai anakku, dirikanlah shalat dan suruhlah (manusia) mengerjakan yang baik dan cegahlah (mereka) dari perbuatan yang mungkar dan bersabarlah terhadap apa yang menimpa kamu. Sesungguhnya yang demikian itu Termasuk hal-hal yang diwajibkan (oleh Allah).
• Surah Luqman 22
                 
22. Dan Barangsiapa yang menyerahkan dirinya kepada Allah, sedang Dia orang yang berbuat kebaikan, Maka Sesungguhnya ia telah berpegang kepada buhul tali yang kokoh. dan hanya kepada Allah-lah kesudahan segala urusan.

Analisa Penulis : Dari ayat – ayat diatas kita bisa mengetahui tentang arti ibadah, yakni bahwasanya kita manusia diciptakan dimuka bumi ini hanya untuk beribadah. dan ibadah itu sendiri diartikan sebagai penyerahan diri kita kepada Allah dan ibadah itu dibagi menjadi dua, yakni, ibadah maghdhah dan ghairu maghdhah.
ibadah maghdhah adalah ibadah yang applikasi dan tujuan utamanya memang diperuntukan hanya kepada Allah, contohnya seperti Shalat, Zakat, Puasa daan sebagainya,
Sedangkan ghoiru maghdhah adalah ibadah yang applikasinya bukan untuk Allah tapi tujuan utamanya tetap diperuntukan hanya pada-Nya, atau bisa diartikan pekerjaan atau perbuatan yang dinilai sebagai ibadah, contonya kita belajar diniati untuk mencari ilmu dan dengan ilmu kita menggunakanya dalam hal kebajikan.
Selain beribadah sebagai simbol penyerahan diri , ibadah juga sebagai tiang agama dan amal yang pertama kali dihisab, kita juga disuruh amar ma’ruf nahi munkar serta bersabar. tidak hanya itu kita juga dilarang keras untuk mempersekutukan Allah dengan apapun, karena yang demikian itu adalah termasuk kedzaliman yang sangat besar.

Hakikat dan Keutamaan Ibadah

Posted on by aqil.
Categories: makalah2 kueren banget.

HAKIKAT DAN KEUTAMAAN IBADAH
Makalah
Diajukan Guna Memenuhi Tugas Mata Kuliah
”Hadith”

Oleh:
Akhyat Hilmi
NIM. D05209053

Dosen pembibing:
M. Hanafi, M.Ag.MA

FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI SUNAN AMPEL
SURABAYA
2010

KATA PENGANTAR
Alhamdulillah,puji syukur kehadirat Allah swt. Yang telah memberikan rahmat dan hidayahnya sehingga penyusun dapat menyelesaikan tugas Hadith tentang “Hakikat Dan Keutamaan Ibadah”.
Disamping itu penyusun makalah ini berguna sebagai media penambah pengetahuan dan pembuka wawasan pembaca, serta untuk mengetahui lebih dalam tentang hakikat ibadah. Makalah ini kami selesaikan tentunya tidak lepas dari bantuan dan dukunga dari berbagai pihak. Kami selaku penyusun makalah menyampaikan terima kasih pada yang terhormat :
1. M. Hanafi, M.Ag.MA selaku dosen pembimbing.
2. Bapak dan Ibu dosen Fakultas Tarbiyah yang telah memberikan pengetahuan.
3. Semua pihak yang telah membantu atas terselesainya makalah ini.
Akhirnya, semoga makalah ini bisa bermanfaat bagi pembaca secara umum dan khususnya bagi penyusun sendiri. Penyusun menyadari bahwa dalam penyusunan makalah ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan, untuk itu kritik dan saran sangat kami harapkan demi kesempurnaan makalah selanjutnya.

Surabaya,22 November 2010

Penyusun

DAFTAR ISI

COVER i
KATA PENGANTAR…………………………………………………………………………………ii
DAFTAR ISI iii
BAB I PENDAHULUAN 1
A. Latar Belakang 1
B. Rumusan Masalah 1
C. Tujuan 1
BAB II PEMBAHASAN 2
A. Hakikat dan Pengertian Ibadah 2
B. Macam-macam Ibadah 3
C. Tujuan Ibadah 7
D. Keutamaan Ibadah 8

BAB III PENUTUP 12
A. Kesimpulan 12
B. Kritik Saran……………………………………………………………….13
REFERENSI…………………………………………………………………………………………….14

BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

A. LATAR BELAKANG
Dari sejak dulu sampai sekarang kita sebagai muslim tentu saja mengetahui akan kewajiban kita, dan banyak yang mengartikan dan mengetahui bahwa kewajiban kita didunia yakni hanya untuk beribadah.
Pemikiran seperti itu memang tidak salah karena sudah tertulis dalam alkitab, akan tetapi bagaimana dengan orang islam yang hanya ikut-ikutan dan belum paham betul akan islam.
Bahkan yang lebih parahnya lagi kita sebagai Hambah-Nya tidak mengetahui tujuan kita beribadah serta hikmah ibadh itu sendiri.
B. MAKSUD DAN TUJUAN
1. Menjelaskan arti ibadah perspektif dari berbagai perspeksi
2. Menjelaskan tujuan ibadah dalam islam
3. Menjelaskan hikmah ibadah

C. RUMUSAN MASALAH
1. Apa Arti ibadah dan macamnya?
2. Apa tujuan dari ibadah itu sendiri dalam islam?
3. Adakah hikmah dibalik ibadah itu sendiri?

BAB II
PEMBAHASAN

A. HAKIKAT DAN PENGERTIAN IBADAH
1) Definisi dan Macam Ibadah menurut bahasa (Etimology).
Didalam Al-Qamus Al muhith disebutkan: Al-abdiyah, al-ubudiyah, dan al-ibadaah, artinya: taat (tunduk),
Di dalam Mukhtarus-Shihah, disebutkan: Bahwa asal kata al-ubuudiyah artinya : tunduk dan merendah. Sedangkan al-ibaadah artinya : taat atau patuh. Dan at-ta’abbud artinya: at-tanassuk (melakukan pengabdian). Jadi, perubahan makna-makna itu sesuai dengan perubahan kata bakunya. (Dalam ilmu bahasa arab terkenal dengan Isytiqaaq)
Dalam ungkapan Fadkhulii fii ‘ibaadii”,kata ‘ibaadii disini berarti golongan. jadi, arti lengkap dari ungkapan tersebut : Masuklah ke dalam golonganku, yaitu orang-orang yang mengabdi kepadaku. Disini kata ‘ibaadii, sudah ditunjukan kepada arti baru, yaitu: penghambaan, penagbdian.
Di dalam Al-Mukhashshash,juz XIII, halaman 96, disebutkan:Asal kata ‘ibadah berarti: merendahkan diri. Dan dari sinilah timbulnya kata’abdun (hamba), karena adanya sikap merendahkan diri kepada tuannya.
Kata ‘ibaadaah,khudlu’,tadzallul dan Istikaanah, kesemuanya mempunyai makna yang hampir bersamaan .
Arti Ibadah yaitu penyembahan seseorang hamba terhadap Tuhannya yang dilakukan dengan merendahkan diri serendah-rendahnya, dengan hati yang ikhlas menurut cara-cara yang ditentukan oleh agama. Ibadah itu ada empat macamnya, yaitu: shalat, zakat, puasa, dan haji ke Mekkah .
Ibadah secara etimologi bahasa Arab bermakna merendahkan diri dan tunduk. Asal makna ibadah adalah kerendahan diri .
2) Definisi dan Macam Ibadah menurut syara’ (Terminology)
Syaikhul Islam, Ibnu Taimiyah, memandang ibadah dengan pandangan yang lebih luas. yaitu, ia menguraikan makna ibadah sampai kepada unsur-unsurnya yang luas. Disamping maknanya yang asli menurut bahasa yaitu, sikap taat dan tunduk secara maksimal, ia juga mengungkapkan suatu unsur baru yang sangat penting perananya baik dalam islam maupun setiap agama. Unsur yang sangat dominan dalam mewujudkan ibadah sebagaimana yang diperintahkan Allah. yaitu unsur “Cinta”. Tanpa unsur emosi yang fithri ini, ibadah yang merupakan tujuan pokok bagi dijadikanya manusia, diutusnya para Rasul, dan diturunkanya Kitab-Kitab itu mustahil akan dapat diwujudkan .
Pendapat Syeikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah memang bisa dibilang paling kompleks, dengan pandanganya yang luas bisa disimpulkan bahwa makna Ibadah adalah satu nama yang meliputi segala perbuatan dan perkataan yang Allah ta’ala cintai dan ridhoi, baik yang dzohir ataupun yang batin.

B. MACAM – MACAM IBADAH
Dari ulasan dan penjelasan dari Ibnu Taimiyah, singkat kata penulis bisa membagi ibadah terbagi menjadi tiga, yaitu: Ibadah hati, Ibadah lisan dan Ibadah anggota badan.
a. Ibadah Hati
Ibadah hati meliputi perkataan dan perbuatan hati. Perkataan hati adalah pembenaran dan keyakinan, seperti firman Allah:
           •        
“Dan orang yang membawa kebenaran (Muhammad) dan membenarkannya, mereka itulah orang-orang yang bertaqwa. Mereka memperoleh apa yang mereka kehendaki pada sisi Rabb mereka.Demikianlah balasan orang-orang yang berbuat baik”. Azzumar: 33-34 .
Dan dalam hadits juga disebutkan pula, ibadah hati, yakni :
صلاة الرجل نور في قلبه فمن شاء منكم فلينور قلبه.
Rasulullah saw bersabda:“Shalat seseorang adalah cahaya di hatinya dan barangsiapa di antara kalian yang berkeinginan maka hendaknya ia menyinari hatinya dengan cahaya.” [Kanzul ‘Ummal, jilid 7, hadis 18973]
Sedangkan perbuatan hati berupa niat, ikhlash, cinta, ketundukan, tawakal dan yang sejenisnya. Allah berfirman:
                 
Artinya :
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang beriman itu adalah mereka yang apabila disebut nama Allah gemetarlah hati mereka, dan apabila dibacakan kepada mereka Ayat-ayat-Nya, bertambahalah iman mereka (karenanya) dan kepada Rabblah mereka bertawakkal.
Al Anfaal: 2 .
Dari beberapa hadits dan firman Allah diatas sudah sangatlah jelas kolerasi ibadah yang menjadi subyek adalah hati kita.
b. Ibadah lisan
Ibadah lisan meliputi perkataan dan perbuatan lisan. Perkataan lisan berupa mengucapkan dua kalimat syahadat. Dan amalan lisan adalah amalan yang tidak dilakukan kecuali dengan lisan, seperti membaca Al Qur’an dan dzikir serta wirid. Allah ta’ala berfirman:
•                
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang selalu membaca kitab Allah dan mendirikan shalat dan menafkahkan sebahagian dari rezki yang Kami anugerahkan kepada mereka dengan diam-diam dan terang-terangan, mereka itu mengharapkan perniagaan yang tidak akan merugi. Faathir :29 .
c. Ibadah anggota tubuh
Ibadah anggota tubuh disini adalah amalan anggota tubuh selain lisan berupa amalan yang tidak dilakukan kecuali dengannya, seperti sujud, ruku’ dan lain-lainnya.
Ada sebuah hadits yang diriwayatkan Daruqutni, yang artinya berbunyi:
“Dari Ali Bin Abi Thalib, bahwasanya Rasulullah SAW bersabda, “Orang sakit hendaklah shalat dengan berdiri jika mampu, apabila tidak mampu, maka shalatlah dengan duduk, jika tidak mampu sujud, maka isyaratkan dengan kepalannya tetapi sujudnya lebih rendah dari ruku’nya. Apabila tidak mampu shalat dengan duduk, maka shalat dengan berbaring (miring) mengahadao qiblat, jika tidak mampu dengan berbaring, maka shalatlah dengan menelentang, kedua kakinya kearah kibblat.”
Berdasarkan hadits diatas, maka dapat dikemukakan bahwa shalat latar belakangnya adalah salah satu ibadah itu dilakukan dengan anggota badan. Dan dari hadits diatas bisa dikemukakan bahwa cara bahwa cara mengerjakan shalat adalah berdiri jika mampu, jika tidak mampu maka dengan duduk, jika tetap / masih tidak mampu maka dengan berbaring dengan menghadap ke kiblat .
Ada juga pendapat lain yang mengatakan bahwa ibadah dibagi menjadi dua macam yakni:
1) Ibadah Maghdhah (Ibadah Khusus)
Yaitu ibadah yang ditentukan cara dan syaratnya secara detil dan biasanya bersifat ritus. Misalnya : Shalat, Zakat, Puasa, Haji, Qurban, Aqiqah. Ibadah jenis ini tidak banyak jumlahnya.
2) Ibadah Ghoiru Maghdhah
Yaitu ibadah dalam arti umum, segala perbuatan baik manusia. Ibadah ini tidak ditentukan cara dan syarat secara detil, diserahkan kepada manusia sendiri. Islam hanya memberi perintah/anjuran, dan prisnip-prinsip umum saja. Ibadah dalam arti umum misalnya : Menyantuni fakir-miskin, Mencari nafkah, Bertetangga, Bernegara, Tolong-menolong, dll.
Sesuatu akan bernilai ibadah, jika memenuhi persyaratan :
1) Iman kepada Allah dan Hari akhir. Karenanya amal orang kafir seperti fatamorgana.
2) Didasari niat ikhlas (murni) karena Allah, sebagaimana hadis:
“Sesungguhnya amal itu tergantung niatnya. dan bagi segala sesuatu tergantung dari apa yang ia niatkan”
3) Dilakukan sesuai dengan petunjuk Allah.
Untuk ibadah maghdhah : harus sesuai dengan petunjuk Al-Quran dan Hadis, Kreativitas justru dilarang. Sehingga berlaku prinsip ” Segala ssesuatu dilarang, kecuali yang diperintahkan”. Kita dilarang membuat ritus-ritus baru yang tidak ada dasarnya.
Untuk mu’amalah: harus sesuai dengan jiwa dan prinsip prinsip ajaran Islam. Pelaksanaannya justru memerlukan kreativitas manusia. Sehingga berlaku prinsip
” Segala-sesuatu boleh, kecuali yang dilarang”
Ibadah pada dasarnya merupakan pembinaan diri menuju taqwa. Setiap upaya ibadah memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap keimanan, lawanya adalah maksyiat yang berpengaruh negatif terhadap keimanan.
“Iman bertambah dan berkurang. Bertambahnya iman dengan ibadah, berkurang karena ma’syiat (Hadits)” .
C. TUJUAN IBADAH
Kita mengetahui bahwa tugas pokok manusia didunia ini adalah beribadah (menyembah) Alla yang Maha Esa.
Kita juga tahu, bahwa pengertian ibadah itu ialah benar-benar tunduk yang disertai dengan penuh rasa cinta kepada Allah. Ibadah dalam islam itu meliputi seluruh persoalan keagamaan dan seluruh aspek hidup.
Tinggal satu yang sering dipertanyakan oleh sebagian orang, yaitu: mengapa kita harus menyembah Allah? atau dengan kata lain: mengapa Allah mewajibkan kita untuk menyembah-Nya dan taat kepada-Nya padahal Dia tidak butuh itu semua. Apakah tujuan sebenarnya kita diharuskan untuk menyembah itu? Apakah ibadah kita itu demi kepentingan Dia? Termasuj khusyu’ kita, berdiri kita di pintu-Nya, kepatuhan kita terhadap perintah-perintahNya dan jauh kita dari larangan-laranganNya?
dari ibadah kita itu kembali kepada kita sendiri sebagai makhluk ini? Apakah hakikat manfaat itu jika ada, ataukah tujuannya itu semata-mata perintah dan taat begitu saja?
Jawaban pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu adalah sebagai berikut:
- Ibadah seorang hamba itu tidak untuk kepentingan Allah.
- Betapapun hamba itu berpaling, maka tetap tidaj akan mengurangiwibawa Allah.
- Pujian orang itu tidak menambah kekuasaan Allah.
- Ingkarnya manusia itu tidak mengurangi kekuasaan Allah.
- Allah Maha kaya, kita maha memerlukan.
- Allah Dzat yang penuh kasih sayang dan pemurah.
- Dia baik dan penyayang, yang tidak akan menyuruh kita berbuat sesuatu melainkan didalamnya ada kebaikan dan kemasyalahatan kita sebagai makhluk ini, lebih – lebih hak Dia sebagai kewajiban apa saja yang Ia kehendaki.
- Ia memaksakan kita apa yang Dia mau, dengan hokum dan nikmat kepada kita.
- Dia menentukan peribadatan kiat yang mendasar itu adalah untuk Allah Swt.
- Tetapi Dia tidak akan memaksakan sesuatu kepada kita melainkan benar-benar bermanfaat buat kita dan maslahat buat kita yang memang kita sedang membutuhkanya dalam setiap pernafasan kita ini. Namun Dia sendiri sama sekali tidak membutuhkan kita, sebab bagaimana mungkin sebagai Pencipta (Al-Khaliq) membutuhkan kita yang notabennya adalah ciptaan-Nya (makhluk) .

D. KEUTAMAAN IBADAH
Ibadah di dalam syari’at Islam merupakan tujuan akhir yang dicintai dan diridhai-Nya. Karenanyalah Allah men-ciptakan manusia, mengutus para Rasul dan menurunkan Kitab-Kitab suci-Nya. Orang yang melaksanakannya di-puji dan yang enggan melaksanakannya dicela.
Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala berfirman.
    •  •    
“Artinya : Dan Rabb-mu berfirman, ‘Berdo’alah kepada-Ku, nis-caya akan Aku perkenankan bagimu. Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang sombong tidak mau beribadah kepada-Ku akan masuk Neraka Jahannam dalam keadaan hina dina.’” [Al-Mu'min: 60]
Ibadah di dalam Islam tidak disyari’atkan untuk mem-persempit atau mempersulit manusia, dan tidak pula untuk menjatuhkan mereka di dalam kesulitan. Akan tetapi ibadah itu disyari’atkan untuk berbagai hikmah yang agung, kemashlahatan besar yang tidak dapat dihitung jumlahnya. Pelaksanaan ibadah dalam Islam semua adalah mudah .
Keutamaan ibadah yang lain bahwasanya ibadah mensucikan jiwa dan membersihkannya, dan mengangkatnya ke derajat tertinggi menuju kesempurnaan manusiawi. Seperti yang tercantum dalam hadits dibawah ini bahwasanya shalat bisa mensyucikan jiwa:
قال النبي صلى الله عليه واله: مثل الصلوات الخمس كمثل نهر جار عذب على باب أحدكم يغتسل فيه كل يوم خمس مرات فما يبقى ذلك من الدنس.
Rasulullah saw bersabda:
“Perumpamaan shalat lima waktu adalah seperti sebuah sungai tawar yang mengalir di sisi pintu rumah salah seorang di antara kalian yang setiap harinya ia mandi lima kali, maka tidak tertinggal sedikitpun kotoran (di badannya, artinya barangsiapa yang sehari semalam mendirikan shalat lima waktu juga maka ia akan terbebas dari kotoran-kotoran jiwa dan ruh).” [Kanzul ‘Ummal, jilid 7, hadis 18931]
Termasuk keutamaan ibadah juga bahwasanya manusia sangat membutuhkan ibadah / shalat melebihi segala-galanya, bahkan sangat darurat membutuhkannya. Karena manusia secara tabi’at adalah lemah, fakir (butuh) kepada Allah. Sebagaimana halnya jasad membutuhkan makanan dan minuman, demi-kian pula hati dan ruh memerlukan ibadah dan menghadap kepada Allah. Bahkan kebutuhan ruh manusia kepada ibadah itu lebih besar daripada kebutuhan jasadnya kepada makanan dan minuman, karena sesungguhnya esensi dan subtansi hamba itu adalah hati dan ruhnya, keduanya tidak akan baik kecuali dengan menghadap (bertawajjuh) kepada Allah dengan beribadah. Maka jiwa tidak akan pernah merasakan kedamaian dan ketenteraman kecuali dengan dzikir dan beribadah kepada Allah. Sekalipun seseorang merasakan kelezatan atau kebahagiaan selain dari Allah, maka kelezatan dan kebahagiaan tersebut adalah semu, tidak akan lama, bahkan apa yang ia rasakan itu sama sekali tidak ada kelezatan dan kebahagiaannya. Dan semua yang telah tertulis itu ada dasarnya yakni seperti hadits dibawah ini:
قال النبي صلى الله عليه واله: موضع الصلاة من الدين كموضع الرأس من الجسد.
Rasulullah saw bersabda:
“Kedudukan shalat dari agama adalah seperti kedudukan kepala dari badan.” [Kanzul ‘Ummal, jilid 7, hadis 18972]
Adapun bahagia karena Allah dan perasaan takut kepada-Nya, maka itulah kebahagiaan yang tidak akan terhenti dan tidak hilang, dan itulah kesempurnaan dan keindahan serta kebahagiaan yang hakiki. Maka, barangsiapa yang meng-hendaki kebahagiaan abadi hendaklah ia menekuni ibadah kepada Allah semata. Maka dari itu, hanya orang-orang ahli ibadah sejatilah yang merupakan manusia paling bahagia dan paling lapang dadanya.
Tidak ada yang dapat menenteramkan dan mendamaikan serta menjadikan seseorang merasakan kenikmatan hakiki yang ia lakukan kecuali ibadah kepada Allah semata. Imam Ibnul Qayyim rahimahullah berkata, “Tidak ada kebahagiaan, kelezatan, kenikmatan dan kebaikan hati melainkan bila ia meyakini Allah sebagai Rabb, Pencipta Yang Maha Esa dan ia beribadah hanya kepada Allah saja, sebagai puncak tujuannya dan yang paling dicintainya daripada yang lain. Dan tercantum dalam sebuah hadits, yakni:

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه و اله: خمس صلوات من حافظ عليهن كانت له نورا وبرهانا ونجاة يوم القيامة.
Rasulullah saw bersabda:
“Barangsiapa yang menjaga shalat lima waktu maka ia akan memperoleh cahaya, burhan dan keselamatan pada hari kiamat kelak.” [Kanzul ‘Ummal, jilid 7, hadis 18862]
Keutamaan ibadah yang paling besar bahwasanya ibadah merupakan sebab utama untuk meraih keridhaan Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, masuk Surga dan selamat dari siksa Neraka. Seperti yang tercantum dalam hadits:
قال الصادق (عليه السلام): أوّل ما يحاسب به العبد الصلاة، فإن قبلت قبل سائر علمه، وإذا ردّت ردّ عليه سائر عمله.
Imam Ja’far Shadiq as berkata:
“Hal pertama yang akan dihisab (diperhitungkan) dari seorang hamba adalah shalat, jika shalatnya diterima maka seluruh amalnya akan diterima dan jika shalatnya ditolak maka seluruh amalnya akan ditolak.” [Wasa’il Al-Syi’ah, jilid 3]

BAB III
PENUTUP

A. KESIMPULAN
Ibadah dilihat dari etimologi adalah Ibadah dari bahasa Arab bermakna merendahkan diri dan tunduk. Asal makna ibadah adalah kerendahan diri.
Sedangkan dilihat dari Terminologi arti ibadah yang ditinjau dari Pendapat Syeikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah. pendapat ini memang bisa dibilang paling kompleks, dengan pandanganya yang luas bisa disimpulkan bahwa makna Ibadah adalah satu nama yang meliputi segala perbuatan dan perkataan yang Allah ta’ala cintai dan ridhoi, baik yang dzohir ataupun yang batin. Dan ibadah terbagi menjadi tiga, yaitu: Ibadah hati, Ibadah lisan dan Ibadah anggota badan.
Tujuan kita sebagai hamba beribadah adalah sebagai rasa patuh, tunduk dengan segala kerendahan hati kepada Allah Sang Khalik, meskipun Allah tidak membutuhkan persembahan kita tapi kita sebagai makhluk-Nya sudah diwajuibkan untuk senantiasa selalu beribadah kepadaNya, seperti dalam Firman-Nya yang artinya, “Dan kami tidak menciptakan jin dan manusia melainkan hanya untuk beribadah kepadaKu (Allah swt)”.

Sedangkan keutamaan beribadah adalah sangat banyak, yakni:
- Ibadah di dalam syari’at Islam merupakan tujuan akhir yang dicintai dan diridhai-Nya.
- Ibadah di dalam Islam tidak disyari’atkan untuk mem-persempit atau mempersulit manusia, dan tidak pula untuk menjatuhkan mereka di dalam kesulitan. Akan tetapi ibadah itu disyari’atkan untuk berbagai hikmah yang agung, kemashlahatan besar yang tidak dapat dihitung jumlahnya. Pelaksanaan ibadah dalam Islam semua adalah mudah.
- Ibadah dapat mensucikan jiwa dan membersihkannya, dan mengangkatnya ke derajat tertinggi menuju kesempurnaan manusiawi.
- Bahwasanya manusia sangat membutuhkan ibadah / shalat melebihi segala-galanya, bahkan sangat darurat membutuhkannya. Karena manusia secara tabi’at adalah lemah, fakir (butuh) kepada Allah. Sebagaimana halnya jasad membutuhkan makanan dan minuman, demi-kian pula hati dan ruh memerlukan ibadah dan menghadap kepada Allah.
- Keutamaan ibadah yang paling besar bahwasanya ibadah merupakan sebab utama untuk meraih keridhaan Allah Swt, masuk Surga dan selamat dari siksa Neraka.

B. SARAN DAN KRITIK
Penyusun mengetahui betul bahwa buah karya yang dipergunakan untuk memenuhi tugas Hadits ini jauh dari sempurna, maka penulis sangat mengharapkan kritik atau saran dari para pembaca. kritik dan saran bagi penulis adalah sesuatu yang sangat berarti untuk menjadi yang lebih baik.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Al-Qardlawi. Yusuf.1998.Ibadah Dalam Islam.Surabaya:PT Bina Ilmu
Slamet dan M.Suyono.1998.Fiqih Ibadah.Bandung:CV PUSTAKA SETIA
Taufiq. 2003.AlQuran in MS-Word ver 0.0.1
www.nurmadina.blogs.com
www.UstadKholid/Ibadah.htm
www.AbuAfif/MylitleNotes/Ibadah.htm

http://www.soni69.tripod.com/Islam/ibadah.htm